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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Manual del Cultivo de la Alcachofa

La alcachofa es una planta perenne, perteneciente a la familia de las compuestas. La planta comercialmente dura de 4 a 5 años, pero la tendencia actual es renovar el alcachofal cada uno o dos años.

La propagación es por hijuelos, debido a que el uso de semilla produce una gran variabilidad de las características productivas de las plantas resultantes, pudiendo incluso dar origen a una planta similar a cardo silvestre.

El sistema radicular consiste en raíces suculentas y fibrosas.
La corona, punto de unión entre tallo y raíz en una planta de roseta como la alcachofa presenta una serie de yemas en los nudos, éstos originan los hijuelos.
La planta posee un tallo en cuyo extremo principal se desarrolla una inflorescencia que se denomina cabezuela.

De las yemas axilares del tallo principal se desarrollan ramificaciones que sustentan alcachofas secundarias y terciarias de menor tamaño. La  altura de la planta alcanza hasta 1,8 metros.
Las hojas son alargadas, pinaticectas, grisáceas por el haz y pilosas por el envés, además presentan una nervadura prominente.
Las flores corresponden a una inflorescencia o alcachofa que es la parte comestible, consta de un receptáculo que se conoce comúnmente como “fondo de alcachofa” y de brácteas que protegen a las flores, cuya base también es comestible.

 

 

INDICE DEL MANUAL

 

INTRODUCCION 3
PRIMERA PARTE
Aspectos relevantes del cultivo 5
SEGUNDA PARTE
El cultivo…………………………………………………………………… 9
1. Situación Actual 11
2. Características Generales 12
3. Cultivares 12
4. Requerimientos Climáticos 13
5. Requerimientos del Suelo 14
6. Manejo del Cultivo 14
6.1. Establecimiento 14
6.2. Labores en la Etapa de Producción 16
6.2.1. Control de Malezas 16
6.2.2. Fertilización 16
6.2.3. Riego ·..· · ···17
6.2.4. Deshijadura 17
6.2.5. Aplicación de Acido Giberélico 18
6.2.6. Control de Plagas y Enfermedades 18
6.2.7. Cosecha 20
6.2.8. Rendimientos 20
6.2.9. Post-Cosecha ..· · · ·20
TERCERA PARTE
Análisis Económico 23
CUARTA PARTE
El mercado 29
REFERENCIAS 35

 

 

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