Guía Tecnológica del cultivo de cacao.pdf

 

El cacao es una planta nativa de Nicaragua. Desde tiempos inmemorables, la expansión en la producción y consumo de chocolate de cacao, dio renombre al país por sus diversos usos.
Se cultiva en los departamentos de Rivas, Granada, Río San Juan, Matagalpa, Jinotega y la Costa Caribe.
El cultivo del cacao requiere de la sombra de árboles especiales, generando un sistema agroforestal que se asemeja al bosque original, que corresponde a un uso adecuado de la tierra, contribuyendo a mejorar las condiciones ambientales y la economía de las familias productoras.

INDICE DE LA GUIA TECNOLOGICA DEL CULTIVO DE CACAO

1. Información general  5
1.1 Descripción botánica 5
1.2 Crecimiento y fases de desarrollo 8

 1.3 Requerimiento de clima y suelo 8

1.4 Zonas agroecológicas aptas para el desarrollo del cultivo de cacao 10
1.5 Variedades 11
1.6 Método de propagación 11
2. Requerimiento para establecer un vivero de cacao 14
2.1 Preparación del sustrato y llenado de bolsas 14
2.2 Siembra de las semillas 14
2.3 Control de malezas 15
2.4 Fertilización 15
2.5 Control de plagas y enfermedades 15
2.6 Riego 15
2.7 Manejo de la sombra de un vivero de cacao 15
2.8 Pasos para establecer un vivero 15
3. Establecimiento de un cacaotal bajo un
sistema agroforestal 16
3.1 Selección del terreno 16
3.2 Drenaje del suelo y su mantenimiento 16
3.3 Establecimiento de la sombra 16
4. Manejo agronómico de una plantación de cacao 18
4.1 Podas del cacao 18
4.2 Control de malezas 19
4.3 Fertilización 19
4.4 Plagas del cacao 20
4.5 Enfermedades del cacao 21
5. Alternativas para mejorar la productividad de cacaotales 23
5.1 Plantaciones jóvenes e improductivas 23
5.2 Plantaciones seniles 23
5.3 Polinización manual, una alternativa para mejorar productividad
en plantaciones improductivas 25
6. Cosecha del cacao 25
6.1 Desgrane 26
6.2 La fermentación 26
6.3 Secado del cacao 27
6.4 El rendimiento del cacao 28
6.5 Calidad del cacao seco 28
6.6 Almacenamiento 28
7. Comercialización 29
8. Glosario 37
9. Literatura consultada 37

DESCRIPCIÓN BOTÁNICA DEL CACAO

  • Clasificación taxonómica
    Reino             Vegetal
    Subreino        Tracheobionta
    División         Magnoliophyta
    Clase              Magnoliopsida
    Subclase         Dilleniidae
    Orden              Malvales
    Familia           Esterculiácea
    Subfamilia     Byttnerioideae
    Tribu               Theobromeae
    Género           Theobroma
    Especie           Theobroma cacao L.
Te puede interesar  Mosca Blanca, biología, manejo y control.- pdf gratis

 

Partes de la planta de cacao

Tallo:

Resultado de imagen para PLANTA del cacao
El tallo del cacao es ortotrópico y alcanza una altura de 1.20 a 1.50 mt. Entre los 10 y 18 meses el tallo completa una fase de su desarrollo, pierde su yema terminal y forma una horqueta o verticilo que contiene de 3 a 5 ramas de crecimiento.

Raíz:

Su sistema radicular es pivotante y de rápido crecimiento, seis series de raíces secundarias laterales de desarrollo horizontal. En los primeros 20-25 cm de tierra desde el cuello de la raíz.

Hojas:

Resultado de imagen para tallo del cacao
Las hojas jóvenes son pigmentadas y de color que puede variar según los cultivares o clones del verde pálido a rosado y violeta.
Son péndulas de consistencia blanda, acompañadas en su base por dos estípulas que se desprenden y caen rápidamente.

Flor:

Resultado de imagen para tallo del cacao
El cacao es cauliflor, es decir que las flores y frutos se forman en el tallo y las ramas maduras. El árbol produce las inflorescencias en pequeños salientes denominadas cojinetes florales.
La flor es hermafrodita, pequeña (1-2 cm de diámetro), pentámera  y sostenida por un pedicelo de 1 a 3 cm., con una constricción en su base. Posee cinco sépalos unidos en su base, de color blanco o rosado, con pétalos alternos fusionados a los sépalos.

Cada pétalo está formado de un capuchón, cogulla o concha, que cubre las anteras del estambre.

La forma y disposición de las diferentes partes de la flor del cacao ayuda a que la polinización sea entomófila o efectuada por insectos muy pequeños. Sin embargo, se puede hacer manualmente para producir semilla y en un proceso de mejoramiento genético hacer cruces entre plantas.
La flor de cacao que no es polinizada se cae a las 48 horas, lo que disminuye la capacidad productiva de la planta.

Esta situación se debe a problemas de compatibilidad, deficiencia nutricional y mal manejo del cacaotal.

Te puede interesar  Guia Tecnica de Cobertura Vegetal.pdf

Fruto:

Resultado de imagen para tallo del cacao
Es una mazorca que tiene módulos visibles por los surcos. En su interior presenta cinco hileras de semillas o almendras cubiertas de pulpa o mucílago, de sabor dulce y aroma agradable. El número de semillas por fruto varía en promedio de 20 a 40, en casos excepcionales, alcanzan 50 dependiendo del tamaño de mazorca

 

FUENTE:

http://www.inta.gob.ni/biblioteca

Una Publicación del Gobierno de Reconciliación y Unidad Nacional a través del
Instituto Nicaragüense de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA)
Fotos: INTA
Fuente de información: Tecnologías INT

PARA DESCARGAR LA GUIA DAR CLICK AQUÍ:

 

Author: Admin

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