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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Carencias nutricionales en cítricos – Síntomas y corrección

Conviene señalar que un cultivo puede presentar deficiencia de un elemento mineral por dos razones básicas:

– por la naturaleza del propio suelo, que sea pobre en el elemento en cuestión.

– por no ser asimilable para la planta, a pesar de estar presente el elemento en el suelo, ya sea por un pH inadecuado o por antagonismos entre elementos.

La  fertilización en plantaciones comerciales hoy en día no se puede concebir sin los análisis que nos permitan conocer  el estado de nuestro suelo (análisis de suelo) y cómo repercute su fertilidad en el cultivo (análisis foliar). No obstante, es una herramienta muy valiosa para técnicos y agricultores el poder detectar en campo cualquier posible anomalía nutricional mediante un diagnóstico visual.

A continuación se exponen las posibles carencias de los cítricos, aunque las más comunes suelen ser por falta de hierro, zinc, manganeso y magnesio.

 

NITRÓGENO

deficiencia de nitrógeno en citricos-naranjo-mandarino-limonero

Es el elemento más importante, influye en el crecimiento, floración, rendimiento y calidad de la cosecha.

Síntomas

Amarilleo generalizado de hojas, más acusado en los nervios. Los síntomas comienzan en las hojas más viejas y son más intensos en las que están próximas a frutos.

Hay un menor número de hojas, y son de tamaño inferior al normal, además el árbol presenta falta de vigor.

Los frutos son más pequeños  y tienen la corteza fina. Por exceso de nitrógeno la corteza se vuelve excesivamente gruesa, apareciendo la alteración fisiológica conocida como clareta o creasing, en la que el fruto presenta unos abultamientos característicos. Además, la planta presenta un excesivo vigor, siendo más propensa al ataque de algunos parásitos.

carencia nitrogeno en citricos-naranjo-clementino-limonero
Corrección

Pulverización foliar con urea en cualquier época del año, mejor en primavera.

Abonado nitrogenado en forma de nitratos fraccionándolo en primavera y verano, o amoniacal aplicado a finales de invierno.

 

FÓSFORO

carencia nutricional fosforo-citricos-mandarino-naranjo-clementino

Es una carencia poco frecuente y difícil de detectar.

Síntomas

Las hojas viejas palidecen,  perdiendo su brillo característico y son más pequeñas.

Se reduce la floración, los frutos que presentan falta de zumo, desarrollan una corteza muy gruesa y los gajos se separan con facilidad.

Corrección

Abonado fosforado, que al fijarse rápidamente al suelo se puede aplicar en cualquier época, preferentemente a comienzos de primavera. Los fertilizantes aplicados al suelo son superfosfato, fosfato amónico, etc., y en fertirrigación ácido fosfórico.

 

POTASIOcarencia potasio-citricos-naranjo-clementino

Su deficiencia suele limitarse a suelos de textura arenosa o con alto contenido en caliza. Los síntomas son poco específicos.

Síntomas

Precisa de análisis foliares para su detección. Las hojas viejas se enrollan y se desprenden con facilidad. Las plantas se vuelven más sensibles a la sequía y al frío.

Los frutos son más pequeños, de corteza fina, poco ácidos, y cambian de color de forma prematura. Este elemento en exceso reduce la calidad de los frutos y hace que se pudran con mayor facilidad.

carencia deficiencia potasio 2 corteza arrugada-citricos-naranjo-mandarino-limonero-satsumaCorrección

Nitrato potásico en pulverización foliar al 2-3%. No aplicar a caída de frutos.

Al suelo: sulfato potásico o un fertilizante N-P-K con alta cantidad de potasio. En fertirrigación se emplea nitrato potásico.

 

MAGNESIOcarencia-deficiencia de magnesio en hoja v invertida-citricos

 

Síntomas

Amarilleo en forma de V invertida en el ápice de la hoja, especialmente en las hojas viejas.

Disminuye el rendimiento y calidad de la cosecha.

En exceso produce la desecación de la pulpa por el haz central, alteración del fruto conocida como granulosis.

carencia magnesio

Corrección

En pulverización foliar: nitrato de magnesio o sulfato de magnesio.

Aplicado al suelo: Sulfato de magnesio (0,25-2 kg/árbol), en primavera o verano.

La absorción de magnesio queda bloqueada a elevada concentración de sus antagosnistas iónicos: el calcio y el potasio.

 

 

HIERRO

carencia-deficiencia-hierro-citricos-naranjo-mandarino-clementino-satsuma-limonero

Es la carencia más habitual, propia de suelos alcalinos, donde aún existiendo hierro, este se encuentra retenido por el calcio procedente del carbonato cálcico existente en el suelo, de manera que no puede ser asimilado por la planta.

Síntomas

Amarilleo de hojas jóvenes, permaneciendo los nervios verdes. Hojas de menor tamaño al habitual. Se puede confundir con carencia de zinc o manganeso.

En el caso de una fuerte carencia de hierro, la producción queda muy resentida y los pocos frutos que hay, apenas contienen jugo y son de pequeño tamaño.

 

Corrección

Sulfato de hierro (0,25%) aplicado en pulverización foliar.

Al suelo, sulfato de hierro (1-2 kg/árbol) o quelatos de hierro (para suelos alcalinos solo es válida la segunda opción).

 

ZINC

carencia-deficiencia zinc-citricos-madarino-naranjo-clementino-limonero

Síntomas

Amarilleo blanquecino alrededor de los nervios secundarios, comenzando por las hojas jóvenes. Disminución del tamaño de las hojas, más acusado que cuando la carencia es de hierro.

Produce una pérdida de vigor del vegetal.

Corrección

Pulverización foliar con sulfato de zinc, en primavera.

 

 

 

MANGANESOcarencia-deficiencia manganeso-citricos-naranjo-mandarino-clementino-satsuma-limonero

Síntomas

Amarilleo (más bien manchas irregulares) en la zona internerval de las hojas, primero en las jóvenes, aunque a diferencia de otros casos, el tamaño de las mismas es el normal.

Suele aparecer junto con la carencia de zinc.

Corrección

Pulverización foliar con sulfato de manganeso, en primavera.

En la práctica se aplica de forma simultánea una mezcla de sulfato de zinc y sulfato de manganeso + carbonato cálcico (para neutralizar el caldo) en primavera, para tratar ambas carencias, repitiendo en verano si es necesario.

 

COBREcarencia-deficiencia cobre-citricos

Difícilmente observable, debido a que con los tratamientos fungicidas se aporta cobre.

Síntomas

Los frutos y las ramas exudan goma, quedando los primeros manchados superficialmente, mientras que las hojas adquieren un color verde muy oscuro y un tamaño superior al normal.

Se produce una excesiva floración que provoca una posterior caída masiva de frutos.

Corrección

Pulverización foliar con oxicloruro de cobre (0,4%).

 

 

CALCIOcarencia calcio-citricos

Su diagnóstico precisa de análisis de suelo y foliar, presentando el segundo algunas salvedades.

Síntomas

Clorosis marginal en el borde de la hoja, avanzando hacia el interior y falta de vigor del vegetal. Produce una pérdida de calidad en postcosecha.

La deficiencia de este nutriente es muy poco común, más bien lo contrario, el exceso, suelos calizos, que se soluciona empleando patrones resistentes como mandarino ‘Cleopatra’. En exceso aparecen frutos con granulosis, al igual que ocurre con el magnesio.

Corrección

En suelos con carencia de calcio (suelos excesivamente arenosos, ácidos,  o sódicos) se emplean enmiendas a base de caliza o yeso y fertilizantes a base de calcio (superfosfato de cal, nitrato cálcico, etc.).

 

BOROcarencia boro-citricos

Es relativamente poco común, ya que se aporta boro suficiente mediante los fertilizantes, que contienen el elemento en forma de impurezas y también con el agua de riego.

Síntomas

En hojas los síntomas son poco específicos; manchas translúcidas (en las jóvenes) y amarilleamiento de nervios en las viejas.

En frutos se observan bolsas de goma en el interior del albedo, que producen unas manchas y abultamientos en la corteza. Estos frutos suelen ser de pequeño tamaño y presentan una menor cantidad de zumo.

También se produce exudación de goma por la madera y muchos brotes acaban secándose.

Corrección

Pulverización foliar con ácido bórico.

Aplicación al suelo de boro quelatado.

 

MOLIBDENOcarencia molibdeno-citricos

Este elemento se asimila mejor en suelos alcalinos, de manera que su carencia es igualmente poco común.

Síntomas

Hojas curvadas hacia arriba y manchas circulares entre los nervios, dispuestas de forma irregular.

En estados avanzados pueden confundirse los síntomas con daños producidos por ácaros.

Corrección

Pulverización foliar con molibdeno soluble en agua, aplicado tras la floración.

 

 

fuente: http://blog.agrologica.es/carencias-nutricionales

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