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Feromonas en la agricultura y sus usos. descargar pdf

A QUE SE LLAMAN FEROMONAS

La sustancias químicas externas al organismo del insecto que actúan sobre su comportamiento, se conocen como
semioquímicos (del griegosemeion= señal) y este conjunto de sustancias comprende las feromonas y los aleloquímicos.

Resultado de imagen para tipos de feromonas en insectos

Las feromonas son señales químicas emitidas por un insecto que le permiten comunicarse con otros individuos de su misma especie, en oposición a los aleloquímicos que son emitidos por una especie para comunicar
con individuos de otra especie. Los aleloquímicos son emitidos por los insectos o por el medio ambiente, como es el caso de los aromas emitidos por las plantas hospedantes de los insectos fitófagos. El presente artículo estará dedicado exclusivamente a las feromonas, dejándose de lado los aleloquímicos.

 

TIPOS DE FEROMONAS

Existen varios tipos de feromonas:

Feromonas sexuales:

Resultado de imagen para feromonas sexuales

Las emitidas por un sexo para atraer el sexo opuesto; de agregación, las emitidas por un sexo y que atrae individuos de ambos sexos; de rastreo, las que sirven para indicar la localización de una fuente alimenticia y que son muy utilizadas por las hormigas; de alarma, las que señalan la presencia de un individuo herido dando un mensaje de dispersión a los congéneres; de marcación, igualmente utilizadas por los mamíferos, para delimitar un territorio.

Feromonas de distribución espacial:

Utilizadas entre otras por las hembras de las moscas de las frutas (Díptera: Tephritidae) para frenar la oviposición de sus congéneres sobre un sustrato que ha sido utilizado por otra hembra para depositar sus huevos, lo cual indirectamente disminuye la competencia por el alimento entre larvas, optimizándose la explotación del huésped. La primera feromona fue identificada en 1960 por Karlson y Butenandt y se trataba de laferomona sexual del gusano de seda, Bombyx mori (L.) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

 

LAS FEROMONAS EN LA AGRICULTURA

Casi la totalidad de los ejemplos de utilización de las feromonas en agricultura se limitan esencialmente a los lepidópteros y coleópteros.

Aunque los estudios sobre las feromonas de otros grupos de insectos han avanzado, su aplicación se encuentra aún en una fase experimental.



USOS DE LAS  FEROMONAS EN LEPIDÓPTEROS
La estrategia de utilización de las feromonas en el campo toma en cuenta la biología del insecto. Los lepidópteros son insectos de vida adulta corta, y, por lo general, viven sólo algunos días. La principal motivación de éstos al emerger es buscar una pareja con el fin de procrear, y de ahí que la mayoría de las feromonas conocidas en este orden sean
sexuales.

Varios son los usos dados a las feromonas de lepidópteros en el control de plagas:

Resultado de imagen para tipos de feromonas en insectos

Vigilancia de las poblaciones.

Esta práctica consiste en atraer la especie plaga hacia trampas con feromona . Su utilización, aunque no está dirigida a un control directo de los insectos, permite determinar, en función de las capturas obtenidas, la fecha de aparición de los primeros adultos. Una segunda aplicación de la vigilancia con trampas es determinar la presencia o ausencia de la especie dañina, con la subsecuente localización geográfica de la plaga. Los datos del trampeo permiten saber cuándo y dónde se debe aplicar un tratamiento insecticida, lo que es particularmente apreciable, dado que es posible.
en función del ciclo de vida del insecto, determinar el período óptimo o de mayor susceptibilidad para los tratamientos insecticidas.

Resultado de imagen para tipos de feromonas en insectosEsta práctica permite estimar los posibles daños provocados por la descendencia de
las capturas, así como el tamaño de la siguiente generación, lo que se traduce en la modulación de las frecuencias de intervención con insecticidas en función de los niveles de población tolerados (Kydoneis y Beroza 1982). Los sistemas de vigilancia de las poblaciones con feromonas constituyen actualmente la principal herramienta de detección de las plagas. Su principal ventaja es la de poseer un umbral de detección de las poblaciones del insecto plaga extremadamente bajo.

 

Feromonas para Trampeo sexual.

Esta práctica, dirigida al control directo de los insectos, consiste en atraer el mayor número posible de adultos de un sexo hacia trampas envenenadas que contienen como cebo la feromona sexual sintética emitida por el sexo opuesto. El trampeo sexual requiere de densidades de población relativamente bajas, debido a la competencia que puede
ejercerse entre los insectos emisores de la feromona y los difusores. A pesar de esta limitación, los focos de infestación del insecto plaga pueden ser fácilmente eliminados. El trampeo sexual puede ser igualmente
utilizado como método complementario de control de los adultos sobrevivientes a un tratamiento con insecticida dirigido inicialmente hacia las larvas. Gracias a esta práctica, las poblaciones del insecto plaga son llevadas y mantenidas a un nivel bajo por lapsos de tiempo superiores a los obtenidos con los insecticidas, evitando pululaciones súbitas. El principal inconveniente de este método de lucha es la manipulación de un gran número de trampas, lo que puede generar altos costos de colocación y mantenimiento.
En lepidópteros plaga de las zonas templadas, el uso de trampas con feromona sexual sintética se ha impuesto como una herramienta para la vigilancia de las poblaciones dentro de las estrategia del manejo integrado de plagas.

 

Feromonas para Confusión sexual.

Este principio consiste en difundir en las parcelas grandes cantidades de feromona destinadas a
estimular los machos, generalmente el sexo receptor de la feromona en los lepidópteros. Estos no logran hacer la diferencia entre las señales emitidas por las hembras vivas y los difusores de la feromona sintética, y por lo tanto son incapaces de localizar su pareja para fecundarla, lo que se traduce en una fuerte disminución de la población del insecto plaga en la siguiente generación.Resultado de imagen para tipos de feromonas en insectos

Esta es una práctica que se adapta particularmente bien a densidades de población relativamente bajas, ya que los insectos presentes en muy altas densidade s optan por medios de
comunicación alternos a los químicos para localizar su pareja, como por ejemplo las señales visuales o acústicas.
Varios son los ejemplos de aplicación a escala industrial de la confusión sexual con feromonas. Dos sociedades norteamericanas lanzaron al mercado en 1985 diferentes presentaciones de la feromona sintética del gusano rosado de la India del algodón,Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidóptera: Gelechiidae). como son Gossyplure H.F.R
, Pectome™ y Pectimone™, NoMate P.B.W. En ensayos preliminares se observó un aumento del 20% en la producción de 169.000 hectáreas tratadas con feromona en Brasil, México y Estados  Unidos. Dicho aumento se debió esencialmente a la falta de efectos fisiológicos secundarios de los insecticidas sobre las plantas de las parcelas tratadas con feromona (Descoins y Frérot 1985).
Las feromonas sintéticas de otros lepidópteros han sido igualmente comercializadas. La empresa Hercon
lanzó la feromona de Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Oleuthreutidae) y la empresa BASF, la feromona de Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Oleuthreutidae), la polilla del racimo de la vid. Este tipo de trampeo se adapta bien al control de lepidópteros o de insectos que producen feromonas sexuales, pero no de insectos que producen feromonas de agregación, sobre los cuales esta práctica tiene poco o ningún efecto

Resultado de imagen para tipos de feromonas en insectos

Vigilancia de las poblaciones.

Resultado de imagen para tipos de feromonas en insectos

Esta práctica permite detectar y cuantificar las poblaciones de la especie plaga. Como en el caso de las feromonas de los lepidópteros, las lecturas de las trampas proveen elementos para la toma de decisiones de los tratamientos
químicos por hacer y pueden constituir igualmente una excelente herramienta para verificar la eficiencia de los
tratamientos efectuados. Cuando las poblaciones del insecto son altas, el uso de las trampas es más eficaz que la recolección manual.


 

Trampeo masivo.

Resultado de imagen para tipos de feromonas en insectos

Esta práctica provee buenos resultados cuando las densidades de la plaga son bajas. En épocas de altas poblaciones, las capturas disminuyen. Inicialmente, este tipo de trampeo se practicó con machos vivos; sin embargo, su principal inconveniente radicaba en el alto costo de mantenimiento de las trampas.

Atracción hacia los bordes.

Resultado de imagen para tipos de feromonas en insectos

Se trata de una combinación de estrategias, en la cual se siembran algunas hileras de plantas tratadas con insecticidas y entre las cuales se colocan difusores de feromona con el fin de atraer los insectos hacia las plantas envenenadas. Este tipo de estrategia da excelentes resultados cuando las poblaciones de insectos son relativamente bajas.

 

NOTAS ADICIONALES SOBRE EL USO DE LAS FEROMONAS

El éxito del trampeo depende de la correcta formulación de la feromona. Las principales dificultades de la formulación se sitúan a nivel de la síntesis química y de la difusión de los compuestos. Durante la síntesis química es necesario obtener, con un alto grado de pureza, los isómeros producidos por los insectos con el fin de asegurar la atracción, ya que la actividad biológica depende de la estructura isométrica de los compuestos. Cada etapa de la síntesis química requiere por lo tanto de una cuidadosa verificación de los compuestos intermediarios en cromatografía en fase gaseosa, en espectrometría en infrarojo y de resonancia magnética.
La difusión requiere el uso de dispositivos que permitan emitir la feromona en las mismas cantidades y proporciones que los insectos vivos presentes en el campo ((Kidonieus y Beroza 1982; Jutsum y Gordon 1989). Con este fin es necesario adaptar los difusores a la naturaleza química del o de los compuestos para controlar las tasas de difusión. Controlar la difusión de la feromona significa transferir moderadamente por permeabilidad la sustancia biológicamente activa en cantidades constantes preestablecidas, durante un período de tiempo dado. Una baja tasa de difusión no desata la atracción, disminuyendo las capturas. Las fuertes tasas de difusión constituyen además un
desperdicio de compuestos, a menudo costosos . Por estas razones, la optimización de la difusión es necesaria.
Actualmente, el empleo de las feromonas resulta relativamente costoso en razón de la síntesis industrial laboriosa
y de las bajas cantidades utilizadas. Los costos de los insecticidas clásicos son a menudo más bajos que los de las
feromonas.

LAS PRINCIPALES VENTAJAS DEL USO DE FEROMONAS

las principales ventajas de esta herramienta de control radican en su facilidad de empleo, en la protección del medio ambiente, ya que se trata de métodos específicos utilizados a muy bajas dosis, libres de residuos tóxicos y sin efectos secundarios negativos para la fauna benéfica. Los tratamientos insecticidas han sido drásticamente reducidos, en gran parte, gracias a la estimación de las poblaciones lograda con el trampeo por feromonas.
Actualmente, la investigación tendiente a optimizar las producciones de los cultivos orienta hacia la utilización combinada de las feromonas a otros compuestos atractivos sintéticos (alimenticios o producidos por la planta hospedante) (Kirsh y Lingren 1993). Las tendencias actuales en el manejo de plagas proponen, inicialmente, el uso de los insecticidas como tratamiento curativo, mientras que los tratamientos consecutivos con feromonas constituyen acciones preventivas a largo plazo. Los métodos de lucha basados en el empleo de semioquímicos no reemplazan ni reemplazarán completamente los insecticidas, pero un uso coordinado de las feromonas y de los insecticidas permite obtener excelentes resultados perdurables con un alto grado de protección de los cultivos.

 

FUENTE: https://publicaciones.fedepalma.org/index.php/palmas/article/download/553/553

 





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