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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Que es Análisis FOLIAR. PDF Gratis.

El análisis foliar determina la cantidad de nutrientes que la planta ha absorbido y supone la mejor manera de conocer las carencias de los cultivos. Aunque la apariencia de un cultivo sea buena, es posible que alguno de los nutrientes no se encuentre en cantidad suficiente, y no se lleve a cabo un desarrollo satisfactorio.

En combinación con el análisis de suelo nos permite detectar problemas nutricionales y elaborar adecuados planes de fertilización.

Con los elementos analizados se acompaña un informe en el que se establece, el diagnóstico nutricional de todos los nutrientes analizados, indicando en cada caso:

  • • la función realizada por el nutriente en la planta
  • • la posible carencia o déficit del elemento en cuestión
  • • interacciones entre nutrientes, teniendo en cuenta posibles antagonismos y sinergismos entre varios elementos
  • • cálculo de los equilibrios fisiológicos, índice vegetativo e índice de hierro
  • • correctores de carencias a aplicar con sus dosis y épocas de aplicación, para la solución de los problemas nutricionales detectados

Los parámetros aconsejados para determinar el nivel nutricional de la planta son: nitrógeno, fósforo, boro y cationes (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn).

¿Para qué un análisis foliar?

Además de permitir detectar carencias nutricionales en el cultivo, el análisis foliar es básico en los casos en que se aplica fertirrigación, una técnica cada vez más extendida en nuestro país, ya que permite actuar de inmediato para corregir los desequilibrios nutritivos que la planta pueda presentar incorporando a través del agua de riego los nutrientes requeridos, que son rápidamente absorbidos por los cultivos.

¿Cómo tomar las muestras para el análisis foliar ?

La parcela a analizar tiene que dividirse en unidades de muestreo. Cada unidad de muestreo es un conjunto de plantas que resulten visualmente parecidas. Si hay alguna zona claramente diferente del resto, pero muy pequeña, no se tomarán hojas de ella. Es interesante recorrer en diagonal la unidad de muestreo.

Las hojas a muestrear se toman de la zona media de la planta.

Se deberán coger hojas enteras y con peciolo, que no estén dañadas, atacadas por plagas ni enfermedades y tampoco hojas que hayan tenido algún tratamiento foliar reciente.

La cantidad de muestra media aconsejada es de unas 50 hojas.

Época de muestreo del  análisis foliar

La toma de muestras se hace cuando el contenido de elementos dentro de la hoja es prácticamente constante, y siempre en la misma época. La época más representativa es durante la floración.

En viñedo, otra época de muestreo que puede ser útil para corregir carencias graves, es en envero (finales de agosto) y se toman muestras de peciolo opuestas al primer racimo del brote central del cargador.

Conservación una vez tomada la muestra del análisis foliar

Debe transcurrir el menor tiempo posible entre la toma de muestra y su análisis. Si esto no es posible se deberá almacenar la muestra en el frigorífico hasta su entrega en el laboratorio.

Interpretación de los resultados
La interpretación del análisis foliar se realiza comparando los resultados del laboratorio con los valores foliares estándar previamente
establecidos para cada elemento en la especie vegetal.




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