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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Que es la BIOSOLARIZACION, beneficios y metodologia de aplicacion .pdf

La biosolarización es una técnica biológica para el control de patógenos del suelo (nematodos, hongos, bacterias, insectos, entre otros), fundamentada en la acción fumigante de las sustancias volátiles resultantes de la biodescomposición de material vegetal fresco y/o estiércol, además de utilizar el calor de la radiación solar, con el fin de controlar los organismos patógenos del suelo.

Una de las ventajas de desarrollar esta técnica de desinfección de suelos en el valle de Azapa, es disponer de grandes
cantidades de materia orgánica, como son los restos de cultivos de hortalizas, además de contar con el efecto del sol durante todo el año, lo que hace posible desarrollar esta técnica en cualquier época del año.

 

Modo de acción de la solarizacion

La biosolarización es una alternativa al bromuro de metilo en el control de patógenos del suelo.

Su modo de acción se basa en principios similares a los que ocurren con el bromuro de metilo, cuando gasifica en el suelo, con la diferencia de que con la biosolarización, los gases liberados provienen de la descomposición de la materia orgánica fresca.

La alta temperatura que se origina del proceso de descomposición, junto con la radiación solar, potencian su efecto controlador sobre los microorganismos patógenos del suelo.

Cuando se aplica e incorpora materia orgánica al suelo, se produce una secuencia de cambios microbiológicos en el mismo. Inicialmente, se produce una proliferación de microorganismos que se nutren y obtienen energía de la misma materia orgánica en proceso de descomposición, lo cual facilita un aumento de su población, favoreciendo
el proceso al acelerarlo.

Durante la descomposición de la materia orgánica, se estimula el desarrollo de organismos del suelo, tanto benéficos como patógenos (hongos nematófagos, nematodos predatores, lombrices, hongos, protozoos, microalgas y otros organismos), los cuales al multiplicarse, reproducirse y morir, originan una cantidad importante de productos orgánicos, que participan en el control de patógenos del suelo, entre los que se incluyen amonio, nitrato,  ácido sulfhídrico, ácidos orgánicos y otras sustancias volátiles.

Estos productos, principalmente producen un efecto nematicida directo sobre la incubación de los huevos o sobre la movilidad de los estados juveniles.

El guano de vacuno, de ave y de animales ovinos; además de residuos de plantas crucíferas y rastrojos de cosecha de tomate, son algunos tipos de materia orgánica evaluados por INIA en trabajos con biofumigación, para el control de nematodos del suelo, hongos fitoparásitos y malezas, obteniendo buenos resultados, especialmente en el control de
nematodos.

Metodología de la Solarización

Previo a las labores que se señalan a continuación, es necesario que el productor realice un muestreo de suelo, para análisis de nematodos de la superficie a tratar con biosolarización.

Si los resultados de los análisis indican una alta población de nematodos patógenos ( > 50 ejemplares de Meloidogyne spp. /250 g de suelo, para el caso del cultivo del tomate, presenta daño económico en la producción), la dosis de material vegetal fresco, como de guano, deben ser las más altas recomendadas.

 

1. Picado del rastrojo vegetal fresco.
Para iniciar la biosolarización se deben picar los restos de plantas del cultivo anterior, por ejemplo plantas de tomate, que en vez de arrancarlas y sacarlas del invernadero, se deben dejar sobre el camellón sin ser arrancadas.

Una vez ubicadas las plantas sobre el camellón, sin cinta gareta, se pican para acelerar el proceso de descomposición de los residuos, y favorecer con ello la liberación de gases en el suelo.

El picado de los restos vegetales, se puede realizar con una trituradora de rastrojos, o utilizando un motocultor. Mientras más picado quede el rastrojo de plantas de tomate, más rápida será su descomposición y efecto biocida.

 

2. Incorporación de rastrojos.
Finalizado el proceso de picado de los restos vegetales, se incorporan los rastrojos vegetales frescos al suelo, utilizando para ello un equipo rotovator.

 

3. Apertura del surco.
Una vez realizada la labor anterior, se debe abrir un surco sobre la hilera o camellón de plantación del tomate ya sea bajo invernadero o al aire libre. El surco debe tener una profundidad de 15 a 20 cm.

 

4. Aplicación de materia orgánica.
Con el surco abierto se recomienda introducir los restos vegetales picados que quedaron sobre el camellón y en el entre hilera, que no han sido incorporados, mezclando con guano en dosis que van desde los 2,5 a 5 kg/m2

La dosis de material fresco recomendada, es de 20-50 ton/ha, dependiendo de la población de nematodos.
Si esta es alta, se recomienda aplicar la dosis más alta señalada anteriormente.

5. Tapado del surco.
Incorporado el guano y los restos vegetales que habían quedado fuera del camellón, al interior del surco, se debe proceder al tapado, 6. Instalación cinta de riego y cubierta de plástico.

Inmediatamente después de tapado el surco, se debe instalar la cinta de riego sobre el camellón, junto con la cubierta de plástico transparente (30 – 50 micras), esta puede ser colocada sobre el camellón o cubrir la superficie completamente de poste a poste, afirmando los bordes con el suelo para evitar la pérdida de humedad, gases y temperatura.

Posteriormente se da el primer riego para humedecer el material incorporado, con lo cual se facilitará su descomposición.

Dependiendo del tipo de suelo es recomendable regar cada 4 o 6 días. Si el suelo es más arenoso y bajo en materia orgánica se recomienda regar cada 4 días, ya que la retención de humedad es menor.

El suelo debe permanecer cubierto con el plástico transparente a lo menos 30 días, para facilitar el proceso de biosolarización, y posteriormente se deben dar 10 días de ventilación, antes del trasplante del cultivo a establecer.

Para asegurar que el terreno está preparado para el trasplante se recomienda realizar un test de germinación de semillas de lechuga o colocar plantines de lechuga sobre el terreno tratado, previo al establecimiento del cultivo de tomate. Si el 100 % de las plantas se establecen, significa que el suelo está apto para ser plantado.

Por el contrario, si hay caída de plántulas, significa que están activas en el suelo las sustancias tóxicas liberadas de la descomposición de la materia fresca incorporada, y por lo tanto hay que postergar la plantación.

Resultado de imagen para BIOSOLARIZACIÓN en los cultivos

Beneficios de la biosolarización

¾ En la descomposición del material vegetal fresco de residuos de cultivos hortícolas, que han sido picados y posteriormente incorporados al suelo, interviene un gran número de microorganismos (Aspergillus, Trichoderma, etc.), que se ven favorecidos en su población por el aumento del nivel de materia orgánica, lo que les permite actuar como antagonistas de los patógenos del suelo.

¾ Las sustancias volátiles (isotiocianatos, amonio y fenoles), resultantes de la biodescomposición del material vegetal, estiércol, o guanos, favorecen el control de patógenos del suelo.

¾ El aumento de la materia orgánica en sus diferentes formas en el suelo (fresca, madura, o humificada), ejerce un efecto mejorador del mismo, al favorecer sus propiedades físicas químicas y biológicas.

Lo que se traduce en un aumento de la fertilidad, mejora de la estructura, y de la reducción de problemas de salinidad

 

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