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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Ecologia y Medio ambiente. pdf gratis – libros gratis de agronomia

LA MATERIA, LA ENERGÍA Y EL ORDEN

Los seres vivos están constituidos por materia y funcionan y se mantienen organizados por el aporte constante de energía.

Materia es todo aquello que tiene masa y ocupa espacio.

En tanto que la energía es una capacidad de la materia que, en parte, puede transformarse en trabajo.

Resultado de imagen para ECOLOGIA

La materia, aunque pueda combinarse y recombinarse, persiste, en tanto que la energía, que posibilita esos cambios, fluye y va perdiendo su capacidad de realizar trabajo, se va degradando en forma de calor no útil.

El agua de un embalse tiene energía potencial (energía capaz de realizar un trabajo dada por la fuerza de la gravedad) que puede transformarse en energía cinética (trabajo realizándose) si abrimos las compuertas y dejamos fluir el agua; una parte de esa energía cinética se transforma en trabajo al hacer girar las turbinas, y la energía cinética de las turbinas se transforma en energía eléctrica en la dinamo.

Resultado de imagen para ECOLOGIA

En realidad es imposible que toda la energía de un sistema se transforme en trabajo: la fracción de dicha energía que efectivamente se convierte en trabajo es la energía libre, el resto se pierde como calor.

TE PUEDE INTERESAR: MANUAL DE ECOLOGIA Y MEDIO AMBIENTE

LA CÉLULA Y EL CONSUMO DE ENERGÍA

La célula viva es una organización inestable y poco probable.

Para mantener su estructura necesita del aporte constante de energía.

Si esto no sucede la célula se desordena y muere.

La capacidad de recibir, transformar y usar energía es lo que, como una característica fundamental de la vida, conocemos como autoconservación o automantenimiento.

TE PUEDE INTERESAR: MANUAL DE HUERTOS URBANOS

La organización requiere energía, cuanto más organizado sea un sistema, mayor cantidad de energía requerirá para mantener su organización contra la tendencia natural al desorden.

Para luchar contra esa tendencia al aumento de entropía y evitar la cantidad de desorden que representa la muerte, la célula requiere constantemente nueva energía del exterior.

Por eso decimos que los sistemas vivos son sistemas disipativos, porque mantienen su organización a costa de un flujo de energía que los atraviesa. Esto explica por qué todo ser vivo, por sencillo que sea, necesita energía en alguna de sus formas.

Pero los seres vivos necesitan energía no sólo para mantener sus estructuras organizadas sino también para desplazarse, relacionarse, reaccionar ante estímulos, pensar, agredir, huir, y muchas otras funciones.

Los seres humanos somos sistemas constituidos por células: somos organismos inestables, ya que, aún durmiendo, necesitamos el aporte de energía; y somos poco probables, en el sentido de que según transcurre el tiempo la probabilidad de desorganizarnos y morir aumenta.

FUENTE: ttp://sedici.unlp.edu.ar/bitstream/handle/10915/38507/Documento_completo__.pdf?sequence=1

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