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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Como hacer un injerto de corona


El injerto de corona es un tipo de injerto adecuado para árboles frutales. Se utiliza cuando el diámetro de tronco es demasiado grande para utilizar el Injerto Inglés o Injertar a púa.

Se puede utilizar el injerto de corona en: Cerezoalmendrociruelonaranjolimoneroolivopomeloaguacate


¿Cómo injertar cerezos?

El injerto de corona se utiliza en los árboles de cerezo que ya han alcanzado un desarrollo considerable.

Nos puede interesar re-injertar cerezos en varias situaciones:

1.- Tenemos un árbol de cerezo silvestre que apenas produce.

2.- La variedad de cerezo que habíamos plantado no logra buenos precios de venta. Sabor escaso, tamaño pequeño, insuficiente aguante post-cosecha

3.- El cerezo es poco productivo o la variedad no va bien en nuestra zona de cultivo.

4.- El árbol ha crecido en exceso y dificulta la recolección.

5.- Cereza con excesiva sensibilidad al cracking.

6.- Hemos probado con éxito nuevas variedades de cerezo que mejoran en prestaciones a la que teníamos.

Dependiendo del grosor de la rama, tendremos que usar diferentes técnicas de injerto. En este caso utilizamos principalmente el injerto de corona. Si hay ramas pequeñas con interés por su posición, las podremos aprovechar utilizando el injerto de lengüeta o injertando a púa.


Fecha para hacer injerto de corona

La mejor época para el injerto de árboles frutales a corona es durante el reposo vegetativo.

La época para injertar cerezos más adecuada está comprendida entre mediados y finales del invierno.

¿En qué mes se injerta el cerezo?

El mes de febrero es idóneo para la realización de injertos en cerezo. Siendo la fecha óptima para injertar durante la luna llena.

Preparación de la plantación para injertar a corona

Antes de poder realizar los injertos de nuestros frutales a corona, necesitamos:

1.- El primer paso es cortar las ramas secundarias, dejando la estructura principal del cerezo

2.- Aprovechamiento de la madera resultante y trituración de los restos vegetales generados.

3.- Ajustamos los cortes algo por encima de la zona que queremos injertar, apurando en las ramas que no vamos a injertar.

4.- Aplicamos pasta cicatrizante en las heridas de las ramas que no queremos injertar.

5.- Esperamos a que se den las condiciones idóneas para injertar a corona.

Número de yemas por estaca en el injerto de corona

Lo más habitual es utilizar 2 yemas por estaca, así si una se rompe accidentalmente, es picada por un pájaro, etc… el injerto podrá salir adelante.

En frutales muy vigorosos, es aconsejable utilizar 3 yemas. Hay que tener en cuenta que un cerezo grande puede llegar a producir 100 kg de cerezas y soporta varios miles de yemas. Después de cortar el cerezo para injertar, todas sus reservas van a parar a varias decenas de yemas. Si el injerto agarra bien, los brotes pueden ser excesivamente largos y es fácil que se rompan con el viento. Dividir el flujo de savia entre 3 yemas en lugar de 2, ayuda a reducir el crecimiento del brote.

Otra ventaja de utilizar 3 yemas es que da más posibilidades para la formación del árbol. Además, si una de las estaquillas no agarra, podrá cubrirse más fácilmente el hueco que deja.

Como contra, si el injerto no se hace correctamente o si el árbol está muy débil, las posibilidades de éxito se reducen, siendo en estos casos recomendable usar solo 2 yemas.

Realización del injerto a corona

Una vez que nos encontramos en la época idónea para injertar a Corona, procederemos a la realización de los injertos.

Antes de nada, tenemos que considerar las herramientas a utilizarnavajamartillomasilla cicatrizantecinta para injertar (puede valernos cinta aislante, cinta de embalar o cinta americana).

Luego, procedemos a renovar los cortes de las ramas. Esto resulta fundamental, ya que durante el tiempo de espera es probable que se hayan producido infecciones de hongos o el cambium se haya resecado/endurecido.

Los cortes deben de ser lisos y perpendiculares al crecimiento de la rama.


Preparación de la estaquilla para injertar

Pasos para realizar un injerto de corona1.- Hacemos una cuña en un lateral de la estaquilla.

2.- Realizamos un pequeño corte en el lateral opuesto, este corte tiene como finalidad facilitar la entrada de la estaca, evitando que se despelleje.

3.- Con la navaja realizamos una incisión entre el cambium y la madera.

4.- Introducimos con cuidado la estaquilla y nos ayudamos de un martillo para introducirla con presión.

5.- Realizamos un corte por encima de la última yema para eliminar la zona machacada por el uso del martillo.

6.- Comprobamos que el final de la cuña se encuentra en contacto ajustado con el tronco.

Siguiendo los pasos anteriores iremos completando nuestro injerto a corona.

7.- Para finalizar el injerto procederemos a cubrir las heridas existentes con pasta cicatrizantede uso para injertar.

8.- Rodeamos las ramas con cinta de embalaje para sujetar los injertos y proporcional algo de aislamiento.


Video de cerezo injertado a Corona



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