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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

® Manual de técnicas de INJERTOS. pdf gratis

Injertar consiste en pegar a una planta madre con raíces (llamada patrón), una parte de otra
planta (llamada yema o injerto).

l injerto se va a desarrollar sobre el patrón que le sirve de sostén.
En la producción frutícola, uno de los aspectos más importante es la calidad del patrón. Un patrón sano y vigoroso permitirá que se desarrollen árboles con una alta productividad y larga vida.

La técnica de injertación permite combinar las cualidades del injerto y las del patrón para producir una planta o árbol frutal que muestre excelentes rendimientos y alta calidad de fruto. El injerto se selecciona por las siguientes características:
– Proviene de una planta madre que presenta altos rendimientos.
– Producción de frutos de excelente calidad comercial.
– Precocidad en cuanto a inicio de producción.
– Tolerancia a plagas y enfermedades.
– Porte de la planta (buena arquitectura).

El patrón por su parte es seleccionado en base a las siguientes características:
– Buen vigor y desarrollo de raíces
– Tolerancia a plagas y enfermedades
– Adaptación a las condiciones de suelo, tales como: salinidad, pH, fertilidad, textura y estructura de suelo.
– Una vez que el injerto esté prendido, patrón e injerto van a crecer y a desarrollarse como una sola planta, pero conservando sus propias características.

Ventajas de los injertos

Las ventajas que se obtienen al usar la técnica de injertación son:
– Perpetúa clones que no producen semilla o no se reproducen por estacas.
– Permite establecer en corto tiempo una plantación con fines comerciales.
– Permite renovar árboles viejos.
– Permite reproducir árboles frutales con alta productividad y calidad de frutos.
– Permite estandarizar u homogenizar la época de producción frutícola.
– Facilita la propagación de variedades que no están bien adaptada a las condiciones de suelo o tienen sistemas radiculares débiles injertándolas en patrones vigorosos.
– Permite unir a una planta (patrón), otra variedad o especie diferente aportando cada una de ellas sus propias características.
– Reproducir una planta madre con las mismas características y potenciales de producción.
– Acortar el período juvenil de la planta y entrando en producción antes que las no injertadas.
– Facilita las labores culturales, tales como podas, aplicaciones fitosanitarias y cosecha de frutos.

Desventajas de los injertos

La desventaja al usar la técnica de injertación es:
– La incompatibilidad: la cual se presenta en diversas etapas del injerto. La incompatibilidad se manifiesta a nivel del punto unión del injerto-patrón siendo la principal manifestación un estrangulamiento conocido como cuello de botella, el cual es ocasionado por la obstrucción del xilema y floema reduciendo la circulación normal de los nutrientes del suelo.

La incompatibilidad es uno de los principales problemas de los injertos ya que influye negativamente en la composición genética de cada individuo.

Las manifestaciones de la incompatibilidad son las siguientes:
– Cuando no se tiene éxito en la unión de la yema y el patrón.
– C u a n d o s e p r e s e n t a n m u e r t e s prematuras

– Cuando hay desarrollo deficiente del injerto o no se presenta el desarrollo esperado.
– Cuando la diferencia entre el crecimiento del patrón y el injerto o del injerto con respecto al patrón, es marcadamente desproporcionada.
– Cuando se manifiesta el cuello de botella.
– Cuando existe una separación de diámetro  menor que el diámetro tanto del patrón como de la yema.

HERRAMIENTAS PARA INJERTAR

Algunas herramientas son necesarias para la práctica de injertación :
 Tijera de podar bien afilada para cortar las ramas.
 Cuchillo muy afilado, preferiblemente un cuchillo especial para injertar, puede sustituirse por un cuchillo fino o una navaja de afeitar
 Piedra fina para afilar
 Cinta de polietileno fino para envolver los injertos y cera.

INJERTOS DE ESCUDETE, EXCLUSIVO PARA CÍTRICOS Y ROSAS

Existen dos modalidades: T normal y T invertida, siendo este último el más utilizado por la facilidad de ejecución y evitar la penetración del agua al injerto.

Preparación del patrón T invertida 

 Con la navaja se práctica una incisión de aproximadamente 1.5 cm de longitud
 Luego se realiza un corte horizontal, en la parte baja del corte vertical, quedando ambas heridas del corte en forma de T invertida.
 Con la navaja se levantan los bordes de la corteza para facilitar la penetración de las yemas de escudete

Preparación de la yema T invertida
 De la vareta seleccionada se procede a podar hojas y espinas. Se deben escoger varetas no triangulares, redondeadas y con máximo de ocho yemas axilares.
 Se seleccionan las yemas axilares del centro de la vareta, que son las más desarrolladas y luego se extraen, realizando un corte de 2 cm; procurando dejar un cm en ambos lados de la yema (escudete).
 El corte horizontal de la vareta tiene que ser sólo corteza sin profundizar en la parte leñosa

 Una vez extraída la yema, evitar que la parte donde se realizó el corte se ensucie, evitando tocarla con los dedos, se recomienda ubicarla en el patrón inmediatamente después de efectuados los cortes.

Colocación del escudete
 Introducir el escudete (yema axilar) en la incisión del patrón con la parte apical hacia arriba
 Asegurarse de introducir bien el escudete, para obtener un buen contacto entre la yema y el patrón.
 Efectuar el amarre con cinta plástica, comenzando de abajo hacia arriba, sujetando firmemente sin cubrir la yema.
A los treinta días después de efectuado el injerto debe retirarse la cinta plástica. En el injerto de T normal se siguen los mismos pasos, la única variante es que el corte horizontal en el patrón se efectúa en la parte superior de la incisión.

Ventajas de este injerto
 Se puede utilizar con las plantas en pleno crecimiento, lo que es particularmente ventajoso.
 Es rápido con relación a otros injertos, es útil para injertar grandes cantidades de patrones en vivero, por el poco material a utilizar.
 Alto porcentaje de prendimiento (90 a 100 %).
 La unión es más fuerte que con otros tipos de injertos.
 Funciona en las especies Cítricas y Rosas.

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