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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Manual del cultivo de tomate de árbol. Descargar PDF Gratis

El tomate de árbol es un cultivo, donde los productores, tienen que enfrentar varios limitantes para su producción relacionados principalmente con el ataque de plagas. El INIAP, a través del Programa de Fruticultura y el Departamento de Protección Vegetal, han encontrado alternativas para reducir la incidencia de plagas del suelo y el uso de agro tóxicos.

Requerimientos climáticos y edáficos

Altitud: 1000-3000 msnm, óptimo 2500 msnm.

Precipitación: 500-2500mm, óptimo 1500mm.

Temperatura: 14 a 20oC, óptimo 17oC.

Suelo: Textura Franca ricos en Materia Orgánica (4-5%) profundos bien drenados.

pH: 6-7

Variedades del tomate de árbol

Las variedades tradicionales son: Puntón anaranjado, redondo anaranjado, gigante anaranjado, morado gigante. Actualmente el Programa de Fruticultura evalúa materiales promisorios con resistencia/tolerancia a plagas

 

El tomate de árbol se propaga generalmente por vía sexual a través de semillas.
La semilla presenta las siguientes características:
Tamaño de semilla: 2 a 4 mm de largo
Forma: aplanada lenticular
Color semilla tierna: Blanco
Color semilla madura: Blanco con pigmentos anaranjados, rojizos o morados internos
Características adicionales: Semillas inmersas en un mucílago gelatinoso
Número de semillas por fruto: 200 a 300 unidades (León, 2002)

 

Portainjertos para tomate de arbol
Tabaquillo o palo bobo Nicotiana glauca (zonas secas), Palo blanco Solanum auriculatum(zonas medias), Cujacu Solanum hispidum (zonas húmedas)

 

Reproducción
El tomate de árbol se puede propagar por semilla (sexualmente), debidamente lavadas, secadas a la sombra, luego colocadas en un
congelador durante 24 horas para acelerar la germinación y romper la dormancia, posteriormente, se colocan las semillas en bandejas, cubiertas con papel periódico para que ayude a conservar la humedad.

La otra forma de reproducción es asexual (vegetativamente), mediante la obtención de estacas, acodos, ramas ó injertos. El sistema
más utilizado ha sido el de estaca.

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Trasplante del tomate de arbol
El trasplante se realiza en bolsas plásticas de color negro.

La mezcla preferiblemente desinfectada y con adecuadas proporciones
de suelo y granza (relación 2:1).

Después del trasplante, las plantas deben permanecer a media sombra durante 4 semanas para su
aclimatación, antes de plantarse a campo definitivamente.

Siembra del tomate de arbol
Los hoyos deben ser de 30 x 30 cm, en el fondo puede colocarse 2 kg de abono orgánico, más 60 g de abono 10-30-10, luego, poniendo una capa de suelo sobre la mezcla, se colocan las plantas de tomate de árbol. Puede utilizarse una distancia de 2.5 x 2.5 m en cuadro para
una población de 1600 plantas/ha, también puede sembrarse en pata de gallo.

Labores culturales del tomate de árbol

Cuando la planta tiene unos 50 cm de altura se eliminan los chupones del tronco, ya adulta es conveniente realizar una constante limpieza de hojas enfermas, secas y de frutos dañados.

Cuando presenta alrededor de 1.60 m de altura, puede podarse para obtener una planta de menor tamaño ó dejarla que continúe
creciendo y que por sí misma bifurque, lo cual bajo nuestras condiciones se logra a la altura de aproximadamente 1, 70 – 1,.80 m.
Durante la época seca es importante no descuidar el riego, ya que debido al tamaño de sus hojas presenta mucha evapotranspiración,
provocando un efecto de “oreja de perro”.

La fertilización se realiza cada seis meses, alternado con 100g de la fórmula 18-5-15-6-2 y abono orgánico a 3 kg/planta.

Plagas y enfermedades del tomate de árbol

Por ser solanácea puede, por cercanía a  sembradíos de papa, presentar susceptibilidad a enfermedades de tipo viral en el follaje,
presentándose síntomas de mosaico, ampollas y deformación de hojas, especialmente en brotes tiernos y hojas nuevas.

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Según el Centro de Biología Celular y Molecular de la Universidad de Costa Rica, los dos virus detectados con mayor presencia son AMV
(Alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus) y TRSV (Tobacco ringspot nepovirus).

Presenta manchas foliares causadas por los hongos: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Alternaria sp. y Cercospora sp.; también se ha diagnosticado lesiones en el fruto ocasionadas por antracnosis (Colletotrichum sp.).Sin embargo, este cultivo responde muy bien a la aplicación de productos químicos y prácticas culturales de tipo fitosanitario mencionadas anteriormente.

 

 

fuenet: http:.mag.go.cr/bibliotecavirtual/

 

fuente: https:ccb.org.co/content

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