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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Manual de ESTADÍSTICA. pdf gratis

Este libro, está destinado a los alumnos de bachillerato de la Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, que cursan el quinto semestre del plan 2009. Su principal característica es su focalización en la exploración de datos.

De esta manera, se intenta atender una problemática que diversas investigaciones a nivel internacional han puesto de manifiesto: en los cursos tradicionales de introducción a la estadística,  los alumnos aprenden a realizar una gran variedad de cálculos, pero, no muestran la más mínima capacidad de razonar estadísticamente, a pesar de aprobar tales cursos con altas calificaciones.

Ante esta realidad, el presente trabajo atiende, en la medida de lo posible, algunas de las recomendaciones que organismos involucrados en educación estadística, han planteado para mejorar la enseñanza y aprendizaje de  la estadística. Entre estas recomendaciones destacan:

• Enfatizar pensamiento estadístico.

• Más datos y conceptos, menos teoría y pocas reglas tipo recetas.

• Promover actividades de aprendizaje.

• Usar tecnología siempres que sea posible.

• Desarrollar el proceso estadístico como una manera de contestar preguntas cuyas respuestas presentan variabilidad.

• Obtener o generar datos propios.

• Empezar el análisis, graficando los datos.

• Interpretar resúmenes y representaciones gráficas (contestar preguntas/revisar condiciones).

El objetivo que se busca con la enseñanza de la estadística, no es que el alumno sea capaz de realizar cálculos o gráficos tediosos, que pueden ser generados con las nuevas tecnologías, sino que adquieran una cultura estadística que se manifieste en su capacidad para:

• Interpretar resultados en contexto.

• Leer y criticar noticias, reportajes y artículos publicados en distintos medios de comunicación, que incluyan información estadística.

• Comunicar resultados del análisis estadístico.

En la búsqueda de un acercamiento a estas propuestas, en este libro se hace énfasis en el uso de recursos gráficos que, a pesar de tener ya varios años en la literatura, apenas si se les ha dado importancia.

Entre ellos tenemos: el gráfico de puntos, el gráfico de caja y el gráfico de tallo y hoja La utilización de estos recursos junto con los más tradicionales como el histograma, permite cambiar el foco del trabajo estadístico escolar, que consiste simplemente en la búsqueda de un número como respuesta a un problema, a la búsqueda de un patrón o tendencia de los datos.

En este sentido, cobran gran relevancia dos conceptos estadísticos: variabilidad y distribución.

Algunas investigaciones plantean que focalizar en variabilidad y distribución, es una alternativa a una enseñanza de la estadística que enfatiza procedimientos de cálculo que pronto se olvidan.

En este libro, se intenta convertir a la variabilidad y distribución, en conceptos integradores de todo el curso de estadística.

De esta manera, se atiende una de las funciones del nuevo enfoque basado en competencias que consiste en orientar la enseñanza desde una perspectiva transversal e integradora.

El presente libro, es producto de muchos otros. Cada uno de los libros o materiales citados en la bibliografía aportaron algo, desde una idea vaga, hasta una propuesta que sólo requirió de ajuste.

Reiteramos que un libro de texto, es un instrumento de enseñanza para el profesor y un instrumento de aprendizaje para el alumno. El libro de texto debe fomentar el trabajo indpendiente de los alumnos.

Para este último objetivo, nos permitimos citar el procedimiento de estudio recomendado por por Robert Johnson y Patricia Kuby: «Pida a su instructor un programa que indique el material (páginas del texto) que será cubierto en cada clase y luego dedique 10 minutos antes de ésta a leer el material de ese día.

No tome notas ni subraye nada. Este es un proceso de «calentamiento»; sólo lea «superficialmente» como avance de la clase.

Cuando llegue a ésta asistirá a un  «inicio ondulante», poque ya conoce los términos y conceptos clave.

Cuando estos conceptos se analicen en el aula, usted estará escuchándolos por segunda ocasión, de modo que «oirá» más en clase. A su vez, lo anterior reducirá el tiempo de estudio necesario para aprender bien el material (la lectura antes de clase es sólo superficial; no necesariamente se trata de estudiar en ese momento el material).

Tan pronto como pueda después de clase, lea nuevamente el material, a fondo esta vez. haga notas, destaque los puntos importantes y complete los ejercicios asignados.

Resuelva las actividades a media que avance en sus clases.

Forme un grupo de estudio con dos o tres condiscípulos. Los amigos no siempre son los mejores compañeros para estudiar; busque compañeros de estudio que tengan sus mismos objetivos para este curso y muestren la misma determinación para alcanzarlos.

Establezca una sesión semanal para estudiar juntos. Tal vez, deba agregar una sesión de estudio una semana antes de algún examen importante».
Cualquier comentario o sugerencia para mejorar esta propuesta, que agradecemos de antemano, favor de enviarlo a jjuarez@uas.uasnet.mx.

Deseamos a profesores y estudiantes, mucho éxito en su estudio de la estadística, disciplina que sin duda alguna, traerá grandes beneficios en su formación cultural para comprender y retener alguna medida de nuestro mundo cada vez más complejo y cambiante

ATENTAMENTE
Culiacán Rosales, Sinaloa, julio de 2012
Los autores

 

DESCARGAR GRATIS Manual de ESTADÍSTICA. pdf gratis

FUENTE: http://dgep.uas.edu.mx/librosdigitales/

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