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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Manual de injerto en Frutal.pdf

El árbol frutal, generalmente, consta de dos partes diferenciadas: una, la raíz, a la que se denomina PATRÓN o PORTAINJERTO y, otra, la VARIEDAD, que es la que proporciona la fruta. Ambas partes están unidas por el INJERTO.
INJERTAR consiste, por tanto, en unir o insertar una parte de una planta en otra, de manera que queden soldadas y se desarrollen juntas formando una planta única.

Para qué sirve el injerto La práctica del injerto se realiza desde la más remota antigüedad. De este modo se han podido transmitir, de generación en generación, las variedades frutales de mayor interés. La propagación por semilla no da lugar a la variedad deseada, al no producir fielmente sus características debido a la disgregación de sus caracteres genéticos.

El injerto permite aprovechar las siguientes

 

ventajas de los injertos

a) Propagar una variedad o una especie que por otro método (estaquilla, acodo, etc.) resultaría bastante difícil.
b) Beneficiarse de las características de ciertos patrones capaces de vegetar en determinados terrenos donde la variedad cultivada no
podría subsistir con raíces propias.
c) Cambiar una variedad por otra más comercial (reinjertación).
d) Beneficiarse de la influencia enanizante o vigorizante de ciertos patrones.
e) Cultivar variedades sensibles a enfermedades de raíz o de cuello, empleando patrones resistentes.

Condiciones favorables para el injertado
Hay seis reglas importantes que deben tenerse en cuenta para el éxito del injertado:
1.ª La variedad y el patrón deben ser compatibles, es decir, han de poderse unir y formar una sola planta.
2.ª La variedad y el patrón deben proceder de material vegetal sano, es decir, no han de presentar enfermedades y deben estar libres
de virus.
3.ª El cambium, o zona generatriz (parte situada debajo de la corteza) del patrón y de la variedad deben quedar en íntimo contacto.
4.ª El injertado debe hacerse en época oportuna, en que patrón y variedad se encuentran en estado fisiológico adecuado de actividad
vegetativa. Cuando la corteza se separa con dificultad (está muy pegada) la época, por lo general, no es oportuna.
5.ª Inmediatamente después del injertado todas las superficies cortadas deben protegerse cuidadosamente, con cinta plástica, mastic
o pasta protectora, para evitar la desecación e infección de los tejidos.
6.ª Se deben cuidar y vigilar los injertos hasta que la variedad crezca convenientemente.
Han de suprimirse los rebrotes del patrón, entutorar el brote de la variedad, etc.

 

Clasificación de los injertos o tipos de injertos

Existen muchos tipos de injertos, aunque en la práctica algunos no tienen interés y otros simplemente muestran pequeñas diferencias
entre sí.

Básicamente se emplean dos tipos de material vegetativo:

a) La PÚA, o trozo de rama de un año (con dos o tres yemas), y

b) La YEMA, con o sin madera adherida, dependiendo del tipo de injerto.
Los injertos más prácticos y que se consideran más interesantes, por ofrecer buenos resultados para nuestra práctica frutícola, son los que
a continuación se describen:

a) Injertos de PÚA
– HENDIDURA O PÚA
– CORONA O CORTEZA
– COSTADO O LATERAL
– INGLÉS

b) Injertos de YEMA
– ESCUDETE O YEMA
– CHAPA O PLACA
– CHIP O ASTILLA

Teniendo en cuenta la época de ejecución, podrían clasificarse en:
a) Primavera: Generalmente todos los injertos de púa, así como el de placa y el chip.
b) Finales de verano: Principalmente el de escudete y el chip.

PARA DESCARGAR EL MANUAL COMPLETO

 

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