Manual del Cultivo de Frambueso. pdf gratis

De acuerdo con diagnósticos realizados en el rubro, la baja productividad en huertos de frambuesa se debe, en gran medida, a la mala calidad de las plantas utilizadas para establecer las plantaciones.

Una de las razones de la mala calidad deriva del inadecuado sistema de propagación que, en general, ha consistido en la obtención de plantas directamente de huertos comerciales, ya sea como cañas o brotes de primer año.

Este sistema informal de multiplicación de plantas favorece la contaminación de los huertos nuevos con diversos agentes patógenos -como hongos, virus y bacterias-, además de provocar un serio daño al huerto original.

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Considerando estos antecedentes, se detallan a continuación los sistemas más recomendables para propagar frambueso.

Sistema tradicional de propagación de frambueso

El sistema tradicional de propagación de frambueso no es el ideal para obtener plantas para el huerto.

Este consiste en el establecimiento de un vivero en campo, utilizando distancias de 1,2 a 1,5 m entre hileras; menores que las usadas en un huerto comercial, del cual se pueden obtener cañas de un año de edad para ser plantadas durante el invierno o bien brotes de menos de un año, que pueden establecerse en primavera.

El manejo de este vivero es muy diferente al de un huerto comercial, ya que deben podarse las cañas para eliminar los laterales florales con el fin de promover la emisión de retoños, que constituirán las nuevas plantas.

Si el vivero no se inicia en un suelo sano o desinfectado, se corre el riesgo de acarrear problemas sanitarios al huerto nuevo.

Sistema mejorado de propagación de frambueso

El sistema más recomendado de propagación de frambueso en campo es la producción de plantas a partir de brotes etiolados (Figura 2.1.) o que han crecido en oscuridad; por lo tanto, presentan escasa cantidad de clorofila.

principales ventajas de este sistema son la facilidad para eliminar problemas sanitarios y el corto período que se requiere para obtener las nuevas plantas.

El no tomar los cuidados necesarios en la propagación o trasplante de los brotes enraizados, favorecerá la diseminación de enfermedades.

Otro sistema implementado en laboratorio es la propagación in vitro, que garantiza la calidad genética y sanitaria de las plantas de frambueso, que se expresa en mayor vigor en campo y mejor calibre del fruto. Su desventaja es que requiere mayor infraestructura y es de mayor costo.

Pasos para obtener plantas de brote etiolado de Frambuesa

A continuación, se detallan los pasos que se deben seguir para obtener una buena calidad de planta de frambueso con el sistema de brotes etiolados:

I. Plantas madres de calidad: el sistema debe iniciarse a partir de plantas madres de buena calidad, idealmente provenientes de cultivo in vitro, que asegure calidad sanitaria y genética de donde se obtendrán las raíces para iniciar la propagación.

II. Cosecha de raíces: las raíces se deben cosechar a comienzos de invierno, lavarlas con suficiente agua y seleccionar las raíces sanas y de no más de 3 mm de diámetro. Trozarlas a 10 cm de largo para promover la emisión uniforme de brotes. Desinfectarlas en una solución de cloro comercial al 5% por 5 ó 10 minutos.

III. Siembra de raíces: en un invernadero debidamente adecuado con platabandas con arena y turba esterilizada, poner las raíces densamente (1,5 kg/m2 ) y cubrir con 5 cm de la misma mezcla. La emisión de los brotes empieza a los 15-20 días desde la plantación.

IV. Cosecha de brotes: los brotes se deben cosechar cuando tengan 3 a 4 hojas, con bisturí u hoja de afeitar, haciendo el corte antes de la inserción en la raíz original, logrando un espacio blanco (etiolado) de al menos 3 cm. Un buen rendimiento es: 2.000 brotes por kilogramo de raíces.

V. Enraizamiento de brotes: poner los brotes en bolsas pequeñas (7 x 10 cm) o en bandejas con la misma mezcla de la platabanda y llevar a invernadero, donde deben regarse frecuentemente pero no en exceso.

Desde el sector blanco del tallo, empiezan a aparecer raíces a los 10 días, presentando un buen desarrollo a los 45 días.

VI. Obtención de plantas de brote etiolado: las plantas pueden llevarse a terreno cuando tengan entre 10-15 cm de altura, previo endurecimiento al aire libre.

El proceso completo toma 3 meses, por lo que la plantación más temprana puede hacerse a fines de septiembre.

Descargar manual completo aquí:

http://manual-del-cultivo-de-frambueso-pdf-gratis

fuente: http:inia.cl/wp-content/manual-del-cultivo-de-frambueso-pdf-gratis

manual-del-cultivo-de-frambueso-pdf-gratis

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