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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Manual del cultivo de PAPAYA. descargar libro gratis en español

La papaya (Carica papaya L.) es una fruta tropical originaria de América Central y conocida en todo el mundo por su agradable sabor y por sus diferentes propiedades, en especial por su capacidad digestiva.

Muchos siglos antes de la llegada de los españoles a América, los nativos de Centroamérica descubrieron que podían comer grandes cantidades de alimentos sin sufrir trastornos digestivos, siempre y cuando terminaran sus comidas con papaya (Ariza et al., 2005).

Esta propiedad es debida a una poderosa enzima conocida como papaína, la cual degrada rápidamente las proteínas, pectinas y ciertos azúcares y grasas, lo que favorece la digestión y disminuye afecciones como gastritis, colitis y estreñimiento crónico. Además la papaya contiene carotenoides como licopeno, â-cryptoxanthina y â-caroteno. (Rivera-Pastrana et al., 2010).

Se sabe también que la pulpa contiene223 mg/100g de potasio y cantidades considerables de sodio, calcio, hierro, fósforo, zinc, cobre, magnesio y manganeso (Oloyede, 2005).

Además del consumo en fresco, la papaya se utiliza para otros fines; la industria le ha encontrado aplicación en diversos procesos, en especial como ablandadora de carnes y clarificadora de cerveza, así como también en las
industrias farmacéutica, cosmética, textil, manufacturera de papel, de adhesivos y otras (Salunke y Desai, 1984).

En adición a la industria, la papaya tiene usos propios en cada país o región; por ejemplo, en Hawai, las partes de las plantas son usadas como una aplicación para enfermedades de la piel y heridas profundas; en Norteamérica se hacen licuados de pulpa y semilla para disminuir el colesterol; en Sudáfrica, el fruto verde cocinado es usado como hortaliza y en Mauritius la hoja es fumada como un remedio para el asma.

En la isla de Java, Indonesia, el comer papaya se dice que mantiene a un hombre joven y libre de reumatismo (Potter, 1973).

A nivel mundial, el papayo es un cultivo que cobra importancia día a día, lo cual se refleja en el incremento de diversos parámetros estadísticos, tales como el volumen de la producción, el nivel de las importaciones, el consumo percápita y los precios del producto.

De acuerdo con datos de la FAO (2007), el volumen de producción mundial de papaya presentó un fuerte aumento entre 1994 y 2005, con una tasa de crecimiento anual de 3.6%, de manera que en 1994 se produjeron 4’733,900 toneladas (t) de papaya en el mundo, aumentando a 6’632,000 t en 2005

 

PRESENTACION

Las frutas y hortalizas mexicanas son reconocidas en todo el mundo por su gran calidad organoléptica, en especial por la intensidad de su color y sabor.

La papaya no es la excepción y prueba de ello es que México es uno de los principales productores y exportadores de papaya ‘Maradol’, con un constante crecimiento en los mercados de Estados Unidos de América y Canadá.

Sin embargo, el nivel de exportaciones de papaya mexicana a Norteamérica podría crecer aún más, si la fruta tuviese mayores estándares de calidad y vida de anaquel.

Para lograr lo anterior, es muy importante que el productor conozca e incorpore poco a poco las nuevas tecnologías de producción y postcosecha, lo cual se dice fácil, pero en realidad sabemos que para modernizar una huerta de papaya se requieren altos niveles de inversión monetaria, de infraestructura y equipo, que no siempre están al alcance de todos los productores.

En este sentido es muy importante que los productores busquen organizarse, no solo para que tengan mayor participación en la elección de las demandas tecnológicas según sus problemas y necesidades, sino que también
tengan acceso a otros apoyos como extensión, créditos blandos, apoyos a la creación de infraestructura y obtención de equipos, comercialización de insumos y productos y otros beneficios e incentivos que pueden otorgar los gobiernos de los estados y la federación.

 

fuente: http:inifapcirne.gob.mx/Biblioteca

 

Encuentra mas manuales gratis en http://www.librosagronomicosperu.blogspot.com

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