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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Manual del Cultivo de Técnico Maracuyá ⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐

El maracuyá es originario de Brasil, se produce principalmente en: Brasil, Perú, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia y Venezuela.

También se tiene en Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Hawái, Sur África e Israel.

Resultado de imagen para semilla de la maracuya

En Colombia se manejan tres ecotipos: Hawái, que es de fruto grande, color amarillo y un peso promedio de 100 gramos, Brasil – Venezuela que es de fruto pequeño, color amarillo y peso promedio de 66 gramos y África que es de fruto mediano, color purpura y peso promedio de 80 gramos

Morfología

El maracuyá es una planta trepadora, leñosa y vigorosa, se caracteriza por tener raíz ramificada y superficial, tallos redondos, zarcillos, hojas ovaladas, flores hermafroditas y auto-incompatibles, frutos redondos y semilla de color negro o marrón oscuro.

Raíz:

es totalmente ramificada y superficial, distribuida en su mayoría en los primeros 15 a 45 cm de profundidad.

Se debe tener cuidado en el momento de realizar las deshierbas y demás labores que remuevan el suelo para no causar daño al sistema radicular

Tallos:

esta especie se caracteriza por ser una planta trepadora, presenta tallo leñoso en la base y a medida que se acerca a la punta va perdiendo esta consistencia; es de forma circular

Resultado de imagen para raiz de la maracuya

Hojas:

son de color verde profundo, brillante en el haz y más pálido en el envés, son simples, alternas, trilobuladas, con dos nectarios redondos en la base del folíolo, lámina foliar palmeada, miden de 7 a 20 cm de largo

Imagen relacionada

Zarcillos:

son redondos y en forma de espiral, tienen una especie de gancho en su parte terminal; salen de las hojas junto a las flores; algunos zarcillos alcanzan longitudes de 30-40 cm

Resultado de imagen para zarcillos de la maracuya


Flores:

son hermafroditas y auto incompatibles, es decir, no se auto fecundan, deben ser polinizadas por la acción de los insectos o de forma manual.

Resultado de imagen para raiz de la maracuya

Están provistas de cinco pétalos y una corona de filamentos radiante de color púrpura en la base y blanca en el ápice, posee cinco estambres y tres estigmas

Fruto:

es una baya redonda u ovalada, con un promedio de 6 cm de diámetro, pesa entre 60 y 100 gramos, es de color amarillo; la pulpa es gelatinosa y tiene pequeñas semillas (entre 200 a 300 por fruto), de color oscuro.

Es jugoso, ácido y aromático. La cáscara es rica en pectina El jugo puede alcanzar el 40% del peso de la fruta, con un pH entre 2,5 a 3,5; °Brix entre 14 – 17; es un fruto climatérico (continúa su madurez fisiológica después de cosechado). .

Resultado de imagen para zarcillos de la maracuya

Semilla:

es de color negro o marrón oscuro. Cada semilla es un ovario fecundado por un grano de polen.

En condiciones ambientales favorables mantiene su poder germinativo por tres meses y en refrigeración hasta 12 meses

Las semillas tienen alto contenido de aceite, con grandes valores nutritivos y fácilmente digeribles.

Descargar manual completo del cultivo de Maracuya gratis pdf. Libros gratis de agronomia

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