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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Manual del cultivo de YUCA. Libros Gratis de Agronomia pdf

¿CUÁL ES EL ORIGEN DE LA YUCA?

La yuca, es una planta originaria de América del Sur y fue domesticada hace unos 5000 años y cultivada extensivamente, desde entonces, en zonas tropicales y subtropicales del continente.

No existe un registro documentado sobre la presencia de poblaciones silvestres de la planta antes de esa fecha.

Dos factores influyeron en la domesticación de Manihot esculenta Crantz: la necesidad de inventar métodos para eliminar los principios venenosos de las raíces, debido al ácido cianhídrico (HCN), y a la propagación vegetativa, que permitió el cultivo fácil, seguro y con una dispersión rápida.

 

INTRODUCCION

La yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz) es una especie de raíces amiláceas que se cultiva en los trópicos y subtrópicos, es un producto agrícola de vital importancia para la seguridad alimentaria de muchos países.

Es considerado el cuarto producto básico más importante después del arroz, el trigo y el maíz y su importancia también radica porque es fuente económica de calorías, especialmente para las personas de pocos recursos económicos y es el componente básico de la dieta de más de 1000 millones de personas en el mundo (FAO, 2000).

Además del valor económico que brindan los productos y subproductos que se obtienen de la yuca, este cultivo ofrece otras reconocidas ventajas, como la tolerancia a la sequía, capacidad de producir en suelos degradados,
tolerancia a plagas y a suelos ácidos.

En Nicaragua, la yuca es cultivada tradicionalmente por pequeños y medianos productores de las Regiones II, IV, V y RAAN.

 

 

Los principales usos de la yuca son los siguientes:

• Para la exportación como producto fresco (congelada y parafinada) a los mercados de Estados Unidos, Puerto Rico,
Honduras, El Salvador y Costa Rica.

• Para el consumo nacional como verdura fresca (cocida y en sopas), platos típicos, postres, etc.

• Para la obtención de almidón y harina (pequeñas industrias).

• Utilizada como materia prima, para la elaboración de concentrados para la alimentación de animales (aves y porcinos).

De acuerdo al Censo Nacional (2001), el 70 % del área cultivada de yuca se siembra en el municipio de Nueva Guinea y el 30 % restante en las zonas de Masaya y León principalmente, para un total de 17,142 hectáreas de
yuca a nivel nacional.

Obteniendo rendimientos promedios de 6.82 t/ha, siendo el destino de esta producción los mercados locales e internacionales.

Sin embargo, esta producción esta por debajo de los rendimiento ideales e históricamente, los principales problemas que han afectado son: uso de variedades no mejoradas, uso de semilla no seleccionada; en la mayoría de los casos no es sometida a selección y desinfección, sistemas de siembra y densidades de población no apropiadas, uso de suelos infectados con hongos y bacterias.

En respuesta a estos problemas, el Instituto Nicaragüense de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), inició a partir del año 2001 mayores esfuerzos en las áreas de investigación y transferencia de tecnologías con el objetivo de mejorar la explotación de dicho cultivo, de tal manera que este rubro sea más atractivo para las familias productoras.

 

 

Título:      Manejo integrado de plagas: Cultivo de yuca guía MIP
Categoría:      Guías técnicas INTA
No. libro:      231
Autor:      Karla Nicaragua; Francisco Pavón; Eusebio Chavarría
ISBN-10(13):     
Fecha de publicación:      01-04-2004
Edición:      1ra Edición
Número de páginas:      48
Publicado por:      OAIP
Contacto:      oaip@inta.gob.ni
Lenguaje:      Español..

 

 

 

DESCARGAR GRATIS  Manual del cultivo de YUCA. Libros Gratis de Agronomia pdf

 

fuente: http:inta.gob.ni/biblioteca/images/pdf

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