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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

El control del virus Y (PVY) en semilleros de papa es clave para el éxito del cultivo

Puede causar mosaicos en las hojas de papa y afectar el rendimiento y la calidad. Las pérdidas de rendimiento oscilan entre el 10 y el 80 por ciento.

 

Los tubérculos afectados no deberían ser utilizados como papa semilla. Cuando la transmisión del virus por los áfidos ocurre al final del ciclo del cultivo, es difícil de detectar en las inspecciones de campo, ya que rara vez produce síntomas reconocibles.

Existen seis diferentes cepas de PVY que afectan el cultivo de papa. PVY0 , PVY C y PVY N son las cepas históricas y han sido  desplazadas gradualmente en Europa y América del Norte por las cepas PVY NTN , PVY N: O y PVY N-Wi, que son nuevos recombinantes de las cepas históricas.

Estas cepas no solo reducen la cantidad (rendimiento) sino también la calidad (necrosis en la pulpa), lo que hace que los tubérculos no se puedan comercializar.

Los síntomas en las papas varían ampliamente con la cepa del virus y el cultivar, desde mosaicos extremadamente suaves hasta necrosis foliar severa, llegando a la muerte de plantas infectadas. Las principales fuentes de infección del virus son las papas-semilla infectadas y las plantas voluntarias.

El PVY también se propaga en los lotes de papa por áfidos alados que vuelan de una planta infectada a una sana.

 

Cuando los áfidos se alimentan del follaje de la planta de papa, el virus se transmite a los tubérculos.

El pulgón verde del duraznero y otras especies de áfidos son vectores del virus.

La propagación de es de manera no persistente (en estilete).

Si las poblaciones de áfidos son grandes, la propagación de PVY puede ser muy extensa.

Las plantas más jóvenes se infectan más fácilmente  que las más viejas.

El tiempo requerido para la translocación del virus al tubérculo es más corto en las plantas más jóvenes.

El tiempo requerido para que los áfidos adquieran y transmitan PVY es muy corto (segundos o minutos), por lo que los insecticidas no pueden actuar lo suficientemente rápido como para matar al pulgón antes de que  transmita el virus.

Como la infestación y la inoculación se producen muy rápidamente, los pulgones no necesitan colonizar las papas para transmitir PVY. Pueden provenir de otros cultivos, arbustos o malezas, etc.

La ruptura de la dormición del tubérculo activa los mecanismos de transporte a través del floema de los tejidos jóvenes de los brotes de papa en crecimiento, que están drenando la savia del tubérculo madre.

En los tubérculos infectados con PVY, esta savia está cargada con partículas de virus que se concentrarán en el extremo del tubérculo donde se encuentran la mayoría de los brotes.

Las raíces crecerán horizontalmente desde la base del brote, mientras que su ápice crecerá verticalmente, emergerá del suelo y dará lugar a un tallo con ramas y hojas.

Se desconoce si todos los tallos que crecen del mismo tubérculo se infectarán a través de un movimiento sistémico ascendente de partículas de PVY del tubérculo madre.

El flujo descendente de la savia de los tallos a los tubérculos de la progenie, que permite la translocación del virus, está bien documentado en la literatura.

El uso de aceites minerales y un enfoque combinado de aceites minerales y barreras de cultivos han estado bajo el foco de atención en los últimos años  en Canadá y en todo el mundo como posibles soluciones prácticas para el control de pulgones.

Estos métodos han sido investigados y también utilizados por productores de semilla.

Los aceites minerales son una opción atractiva ya que pueden reducir la toxicidad para los seres humanos y el medio ambiente; se pueden aplicar con los equipos de pulverización existentes y, potencialmente, reducir la propagación de PVY y, en consecuencia, asegurar la sanidad del cultivo para el productor.

Estudios recientes también han demostrado que la combinación de aceites minerales e insecticidas actúa para minimizar la propagación de PVY en los cultivos de papa-semilla.

La aplicación frecuente de aceite mineral que comienza temprano y continúa durante toda la temporada, complementado a menudo con insecticidas aplicados  simultáneamente, ha mostrado el mayor potencial.

De 2010 a 2014, se llevó a cabo una extensa investigación en fincas en New Brunswick para determinar los principales factores involucrados en la propagación de PVY.

En colaboración con los productores de papa, se realizaron ensayos en campos comerciales separados de semilla, procesamiento y consumo fresco que representan diversas variedades de papa que se cultivan comúnmente en New Brunswick.

El objetivo general del estudio fue cuantificar la importancia del inóculo del virus, el vector y el número, el momento y los tipos de insecticidas y aerosoles de aceite mineral utilizados.

A lo largo de las cinco temporadas en estudio, la propagación de PVY en las chacras disminuyó sustancialmente, de 14 por ciento en 2010 a 1.2 por ciento en 2014.

El nivel promedio de PVY en los lotes de semillas analizadas como parte del programa provincial de pruebas de semillas post-cosecha disminuyó de 3,34 por ciento en 2012 a 0,42 por ciento en 2016, una reducción de ocho veces.

El número de lotes de semillas sanas (0% PVY) aumentó del 24% en 2012 al 71% en 2016. Cada disminución del 1% en el nivel de virus en la semilla dará lugar a un aumento de 150 lb. en el rendimiento por acre.

Los factores que contribuyeron a disminuir la propagación del virus incluyeron uso de semilla sana, utilización de aceite mineral e insecticidas, plantación tardia y pulverización temprana.

El PVY es una enfermedad compleja que preocupa más que nunca a los productores de papa en Canadá y los Estados Unidos.

En vista de la creciente amenaza de esta enfermedad, ¿qué pueden hacer los productores para proteger sus cultivos?

La mayoría de los productores conocen las técnicas de manejo básicas que, como es el caso con muchos otros programas de prevención de enfermedades, son una combinación de varios enfoques, incluidas las mejores prácticas de manejo.

Las siguientes son pautas básicas para el control de PVY a nivel de productor:

**Utilizar semillas libres de enfermedades. Los resultados de las pruebas de lectura de campo y poscosecha se pueden usar como guías para seleccionar lotes de semillas con niveles bajos de virus.

**Cultivar variedades resistentes si es posible.

**Destruir apropiadamente las pilas de papa de descarte de acuerdo con las pautas establecidas.

**Roguing temprano en la temporada para eliminar las plantas infectadas del campo.

**Usar insecticidas para evitar que la población de áfidos aumente dentro del campo.

**Desinfectar todo el equipo de corte y siembra antes del contacto con la semilla.

**Minimizar el daño mecánico de las plantas durante el cultivo y la fumigación. Minimizar la entrada de visitantes a los campos de papa.

**Evitar plantar papas de siembra a favor del viento de campos comerciales.

**Controlar las papa voluntarias.

**Quemar el cultivo  temprano para prevenir la infección por el virus hacia el final de la temporada.

**Evitar plantar variedades susceptibles cerca de campos con variedades que tengan una mala expresión de los síntomas.

**Utilizar aceites minerales.

 

fuente: http://www.argenpapa.com.ar/noticia/6751-canada-el-control-del-virus-y-pvy-en-semilleros-de-papa-es-clave-para-el-exito-del-cultivo

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