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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Manual de BIOPESTICIDAS. Libros gratis de agronomia pdf

El término biopesticida se suele utilizar para los productos utilizados en el control de plagas principalmente de la agricultura cuyo origen es procedente de algún organismo vivo

Los biopesticidas -o bioplaguicidas- son métodos biológicos para controlar plagas que evitan las “externalidades” -consecuencias negativas- de los plaguicidas químicos derivados del petróleo, al ser biodegradables e inocuos para personas.

Las ventajas son cada vez más valoradas, a medida que disminuye el precio de los tratamientos y se acorta el tiempo de amortización de los pesticidas biológicos: son más efectivos a largo plazo, no producen residuos peligrosos persistentes, impactan menos sobre las especies no tratadas y, en ocasiones, pueden ser creados por los propios productores.

 

Ascenso del control de plagas biológico

Históricamente, los pesticidas se han clasificado por el tipo de plaga que controlan, pero la eclosión de la agricultura orgánica, presente ya en grandes explotaciones agropecuarias de todo el mundo, demanda una primera subdivisión básica entre:

  • plaguicidas biodegradables, descompuestos por microbios y otros organismos en sustancias inocuas que vuelven a la tierra en forma de humus;
  • y los pesticidas persistentes, que necesitan tiempo -desde meses a años- para descomponerse y, cuando lo hacen, contaminan organismos y suponen en ocasiones un riesgo para la salud humana.

 

 

Ventajas objetivas de los biopesticidas

Michael Pollan defiende la alimentación orgánica: “Creo que estamos edificando un muñeco de paja y después derribándolo, el muñeco de paja representaría que todo el sentido de los alimentos orgánicos consistiría en que son más nutritivos.

El auténtico sentido de la alimentación orgánica es su sostenibilidad ambiental.

Esa es la defensa más sólida y sencilla que hacer [de la producción orgánica]”.

 

 

Los biopesticidas son, además, personalizables en función de la variedad local de tierra, clima y tipo de cosecha; también se pueden producir localmente, evitando así los costes relacionados con el uso de pesticidas patentados y producidos de manera centralizada.

Los biopesticidas se dividen en tres grandes metodologías para el control biológico (menos dañino para el consumo humano y el medio ambiente):

  • los biopesticidas basados en sustancias bioquímicas de origen vegetal (tales como aceites y extractos de plantas aromáticas, piretro, nicotina, rotenona, azadiractina, etc.), lograron ventas de 450 millones de euros en 2011, sobre un total de 1.300 millones;

 

  • microorganismos (plaguicidas microbianos, incluyendo bacterias -250 variedades registradas, entre ellas Bacillus subtilis para control de patógenos y Bacillus thuringiensis, que ataca a insectos-, hongos -95 variedades registradas, como Trichoderma, Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana y, para proteger la vid de mildio, el hongo Ampelomyces quisqualis- y virus -40 variedades, como Cydia pomonella, para proteger de la granulosis-);

 

  • invertebrados: insectos para el control de plagas; se usan más de 300 especies, desde mariquitas a avispas parasitoides (lograron 350 millones de euros en ventas en 2011).

fuente: http://www.librosagronomicosperu.blogspot.com

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