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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Libros gratis: manejo-ecológico-de-plagas-y-enfermedades.pdf

En la naturaleza, como resultado de múltiples presiones selectivas ocurridas en el curso de miles y millones de años, los organismos han desarrollado mecanismos de supervivencia y reproducción que explican su existencia actual.

Existe cierto equilibrio en las cantidades de plantas, animales y microorganismos de un lugar.

Es decir, la acción combinada de múltiples factores abióticos y bióticos, explica que los organismos muestren una abundancia que, aunque variable estacionalmente, se mantiene más o menos constante en torno a un valor promedio típico en un lugar específico.

En la naturaleza, a causa del efecto recíproco de unos organismos sobre otros, bajo ciertas condiciones ambientales, éstos muy rara vez incrementan sus densidades más allá de sus populaciones promedios y, cuando lo hacen, con tiempo la situación retorna al estado normal.

En otras palabras, en la naturaleza no existen plagas ni malezas.

Las Causas de la Aparición de las Plagas

A pesar de que la naturaleza maneja los ecosistemas de manera equilibrada existen varias razones las cuales pueden dañar este equilibrio y causar el aumento excesivo de algún organismo:

  • • Monocultivos en grandes extensiones.
  • • Eliminación de la vegetación silvestre.
  • • Introducción de cultivos exóticos, no adaptados al lugar.
  • • Eliminación de organismos benéficos por el uso indiscriminado de plaguicidas.
  • • El ingreso accidental de un organismo en una nueva región o país.
  • • Gustos o hábitos de los consumidores que no permiten pequeños daños superficiales de los productos.

La multitud de problemas fitosanitarios se combate desde hace siglos con insecticidas químicos.

Son tratados como la única solución para dichos problemas, causando efectos inmediatos para reducir espectacularmente las poblaciones de insectos de manera efectiva y en el momento oportuno.

La idea detrás de este concepto no es cambiar el sistema de producción sino asegurarlo con una tecnología cada vez más dañina para el medio ambiente y el ser humano.

Adicionalmente a mediano y largo plazo, y como han mostrado muchos ejemplos últimamente, aumentan y no reducen el problema de las plagas como se puede ver en la siguiente ilustración.

fuente: https://redhuertosalicante.files

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