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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Manual de Manejo y control de MOSCA DE LA FRUTA. libros gratis de agronomia pdf

 

El cultivo de frutales es un rubro importante dentro del sector agrícola de nuestro país.

En la Región Interandina los principales productos son mora, pepino dulce, tomate de árbol y uvilla, cuyas superficies de cultivo se han incrementado, extendiéndose a zonas donde anteriormente se solía cultivar maíz y varias hortalizas; la manzana, el durazno y otros caducifolios se mantienen, aunque se han reducido las áreas de cultivo.

En la Costa, son importantes cultivos de mango, melón, maracuyá, papaya y sandía, entre otros.

Debido a esta situación, se ha puesto a disponibilidad de las “moscas de la fruta” nuevas áreas de cultivo y mayor cantidad de alimento, rompiendo los mecanismos naturales de regulación de poblaciones, ocasionando un incremento de estas plagas y su daño.

Los daños directos de las moscas de la fruta son destrucción de la pulpa, disminución de su valor, facilidad al ataque de patógenos y disminución de la producción de fruta.

De manera indirecta ocasionan incremento de costos de producción por la aplicación de medidas de control, gastos en investigación para el desarrollo de tecnología de control, afectan el comercio nacional y restringen el ingreso a mercados internacionales, ya que varias especies son de interés cuarentenario para países importadores de fruta fresca.

En algunos casos estas plagas destruyen la cosecha de frutas, lo que preocupa sobre manera a fruticultores, investigadores y profesionales agrícolas.

Considerando la importancia que representan las moscas de la fruta para el sector agrícola, la presente publicación tiene como propósito orientar a fruticultores y a todo personal involucrado en la producción

ASPECTOS BIOECOLOGICOS DE LAS MOSCAS DE LA FRUTA

Las verdaderas “moscas de la fruta” son insectos pertenecientes a la familia Tephritidae del Orden Diptera. El género Anastrepha es autóctono de Centro y Sudamérica, mientras que el género Ceratitis es introducido.

En la mayoría de los casos, sus larvas se alimentan de la pulpa de las frutas, p.e. Anastrepha fraterculus, A. striata, A. serpentina, Ceratitis capitata, etc., otras se alimentan de las semillas, como Anastrepha atrox, cuyas larvas se desarrollan en las semillas de Pouteria lucuma, las de Anastrepha montei se alimentan de las semillas de Manihot sculenta; larvas de otras especies se han reportado alimentándose de flores, aunque en Ecuador esta situación aún no se ha registrado.

Poseen metamorfosis completa, pasando por los estados de huevo, larva, pupa y adulto, cada uno de los cuales posee características bien definidas.

Las especies del género Anastrepha Schiner son propias de nuestro continente; la mosca del mediterráneo  Ceratitis capitata Wied., es originaria de África Occidental, pero a través de las diversa actividades del hombre y bajo condiciones climáticas y disponibilidad de hospederos favorables, se ha dispersado por la mayoría de países del continente Americano y por muchos otros lugares del mundo

DESCARGAR Manual de Manejo y control de MOSCA DE LA FRUTA. GRATIS

fuente: https://repositorio.espe.edu.ec/bitstream/

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