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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Manual de PLAGAS mas COMUNES del JARDIN. pdf gratis

El enfoque moderno para controlar las plagas consiste en la combinación de diferentes métodos para prevenir y minimizar los daños que estos organismos perjudiciales puedan causar.

Este enfoque no persigue eliminar ni erradicar las plagas, porque lograrlo es difícil y al intentarlo generalmente se perjudica el medio ambiente.

La intención es mantener la población de las plagas a niveles aceptables utilizando métodos de control que no representen riesgos injustos para los humanos, los animales, las plantas y el medio ambiente.

A este enfoque moderno se le llama manejo integrado de plagas (MIP).

En los jardines de hogares, parques, comercios e industrias y en cualquier área urbana donde se cultiven plantas
ornamentales debe existir un plan o programa MIP para minimizar los problemas que causan los organismos perjudiciales.

Para que un programa MIP funcione correctamente son necesarios la prevención y el seguimiento. A continuación se explican otros componentes importantes de un programa MIP.

Identificación correcta de las plagas

El primer paso para seleccionar las prácticas adecuadas de control apropiadas consiste en identificar correctamente las plagas que queremos controlar.

Con frecuencia los síntomas de deterioro que se desarrollan en las plantas a causa de un mal manejo se confunden con daños de insectos y otras plagas. Por consiguiente, la aplicación de plaguicidas y otras prácticas de  control resultan infructuosas y constituyen una perdida de tiempo y dinero.

Además, la identificación correcta de las plagas es esencial, ya que los plaguicidas son fabricados para controlar determinadas plagas y resultan ineficaces contra otras.

Es indispensable conocer los requisitos específicos de las variedades de plantas ornamentales afectadas para diagnosticar correctamente sus problemas.

Obtenga toda la información posible sobre el historial de las plantas afectadas.

Controlar las plagas a tiempo

La aparición de unas pocas plagas o pocos daños frecuentemente no representan ninguna amenaza para la salud de las plantas y pueden ser tolerados y aceptados.

Por el contrario, una vez que la población de plagas es muy numerosa y el daño es extenso, las opciones para resolver el problema son más limitadas o incluso imposibles porque no se actuó a tiempo.

En Puerto Rico no se han realizado las investigaciones necesarias para determinar los umbrales de acción o niveles de tolerancia para las diferentes plagas que atacan a las plantas ornamentales.

Los métodos de inspección y muestreo que se discuten en este manual son sugerencias para que los técnicos en jardinería y los amantes de las plantas ornamentales tengan mejores elementos de juicio para determinar cuál es el momento oportuno para aplicar plaguicidas y otras prácticas de control y evitar que las plagas causen  daños significativos.

 Implantar dos o más métodos de control

Está científicamente comprobado que no podemos controlar eficientemente las plagas con un sólo método. En un programa MIP es necesario combinar dos o más métodos para mantener las plagas bajo control.

Los  métodos disponibles más usados son: exclusión, saneamiento, plantas resistentes, prácticas culturales, controles mecánicos, control biológico y plaguicidas.

Por regla general el uso de plaguicidas es la última alternativa. Antes de implantar las prácticas apropiadas de control es necesario identificar correctamente las plagas presentes y conocer su comportamiento, ciclo de vida y ecología.

fuente: http://edicionesdigitales.info/biblioteca/plagasjardin.pdf

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