Saltar al contenido
Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Entomología – Insectos I parte (manual gratis)

El estudio de los insectos corresponde a la rama de las ciencias biológicas que recibe el nombre de Entomología, cuya etimología griega es:

Entom = insecto y Logos = tratado, estudio o acción.

La primera expresión es equivalente al término latino insectum, que significa cortado en, y define perfectamente a los insectos, pues su cuerpo está dividido en diversos segmentos, generalmente bien diferenciados.

Tomando como base la Entomología general o básica, existen entre otras entomologías aplicadas:

Resultado de imagen para insectos entomológicos

Entomología médica.- estudia el papel que desempeñan los insectos con relación a la salud humana (trasmisión de enfermedades).

Entomología forestal.– estudia los insectos que afectan a los bosques y los productos que se obtienen de estos (maderas: construcción, papel, etc.).

Entomología agrícola.- estudia los insectos que afectan los cultivos agrícolas en el campo y en el almacén, así como a los productos que de ellos se obtienen.

INSECTO

Los insectos pertenecen al gran Phyllum de los animales con patas articuladas, llamadas artrópodos.

Dentro de este phyllum los insectos forman un grupo muy especializado y numeroso que comprende la clase insecta o hexápoda, y constituyen más del 90% de este. Los insectos se distribuyen desde el Ártico hasta el Antártico: desde las cumbres de las montañas más elevadas hasta las profundas cavernas.

Existen insectos terrestres y acuáticos.

CARACTERÍSTICAS DE LOS INSECTOS

Se distinguen por tener el cuerpo dividido en tres regiones generales bien definidas que son: cabeza, tórax y abdomen.

En la cabeza llevan un par de antenas y, en el tórax, por el lado inferior 3 pares de patas, siendo este un carácter primordial del que se deriva el nombre HEXAPODA, palabra formada por dos raíces griegas: HEXA = seis y PODOS = pies o patas.

Te puede interesar  ® Manual del cultivo de HORTALIZAS. pdf gratis

El dorso del tórax puede llevar uno o dos pares de alas, en numerosas especies, pero también existe un buen número que carece de estos órganos.

CARACTERÍSTICAS FAVORABLES DE LOS INSECTOS FRENTE A OTROS ANIMALES

Resultado de imagen para partes de los insectos

1. Exoesqueleto.

2. Tamaño.- Por ser generalmente pequeños, los hace difícilmente distinguibles de sus enemigos naturales y los defiende de otras situaciones adversas.

3. Facultad de volar.- La mayoría poseen alas, lo cual les permite desplazarse rápidamente para ponerse a salvo, proveerse de alimentos, buscar el sexo opuesto y perpetuar la especie.

4. Poder de Reproducción y lo Breve de su Ciclo biológico: permite una enorme multiplicación en muy corto tiempo.

5. El Mimetismo: tomar forma o color de objetos cercanos los hace escapar de sus enemigos naturales.

6. Metamorfosis: les permite invernar en algún estado de su desarrollo para protegerse de condiciones adversas del medio, así como de sus enemigos naturales.

7. Construcción de Capullos: estructuras de cera que les permite protegerse de condiciones adversas del medio, así como de sus enemigos naturales.

8. El cambio de forma (metamorfosis), desde el punto de vista agrícola es importante pues el agricultor solamente combate al estado en el cual el insecto causa daños (generalmente en el caso de larvas) y se descuida del estado adulto quien es responsable de una nueva generación.

MORFOLOGÍA DE LOS INSECTOS

La morfología es el estudio de las formas de los organismos vivientes, es decir estudio de las diversas estructuras como un todo.

Es importante el conocimiento de la morfología externa de estos organismos y el dominio del vocabulario correspondiente por que es la única manera de comprender las descripciones técnicas, usar las claves de clasificación y describir con propiedad a los diversos órdenes, familias y géneros y especies de este grupo.

Te puede interesar  Manual de Mosca de la Fruta. Agronomia. pdf gratis

Antes de proceder a la descripción de estas partes es necesario comprender algunas generalidades relativas a la pared del cuerpo o Exoesqueleto, a partir de la cual se originan.

EXOESQUELETO:

También llamado tegumento o ectoesqueleto, es la cubierta extrema de los insectos y otros artrópodos, y es compatible al endoesqueleto del ser humano y otros vertebrados.

DESCARGAR . MANUAL DE ENTOMOLOGÍA

Las principales funciones del exoesqueleto son:

  • – Proteger los órganos internos contra daños mecánicos, externos, patógenos, insecticidas y actuar como una barrera que retase el paso del agua hacia el interior y exterior del cuerpo del insecto.
  • – Sirve como una estructura de sostén para la inserción de los músculos.
  • – Proporcionar una superficie para el sistema receptor sensorial que mantiene al insecto en contacto con el medio.

Entre las desventajas se consideran:

– Debe mudar para que el insecto pueda crecer.

– El insecto es muy vulnerable cuando esta mudando de un estado al siguiente: Teniendo en cuenta esta característica de los insectos, existen productos que actúan como impedimento o inhibidores para que se realice este proceso y otros que actúan en el momento mismo de la muda.

DESCARGAR : MANUAL DE PRACTICAS DE ENTOMOLOGÍA

Está compuesto de tres capas principales:

1.- LA CUTÍCULA Es la capa externa no celular del exoesqueleto formado por tres capas:

Endocuticula: Es la capa interna, varia en grosos y da dureza y resistencia la cutícula, es permeable al agua

– Exocuticula: Es la capa media, comparativamente gruesa y da resistencia y flexibilidad de la cutícula.

Estas dos capas son de naturaleza quitinosa y forman la mayor parte de la cutícula; juntas forman la Procuticula. La exocutícula tiene una pigmentación mas oscura que la endocutícula y además de la quitina presenta otras sustancias como la proteína esclerotina y taninos que causan su endurecimiento es un proceso conocido como esclerotización.

Te puede interesar  Manual del cultivo de Pitahaya.pdf gratis

– Epicutícula: Capa externa, muy delgada de aproximadamente 01 micrón de espesor, no quitinosa, contiene ceras y aceites funciona como capa impermeable, estos pues le da un rol importante con relación a la aplicación de pulverizaciones acuosas contra los insectos.

Esta formada por cuatro capas:

  • a) La capa de cemento (cementante o tectocuticula): Formada básicamente por liproteinas.
  • b) La capa de cera (cerosa): Constituida por ceras y ácidos grasos.
  • c) La capa de polifenoles (polifenólica): Constituida por fenoles y polifenoles.
  • d) La capa cuticulina: Constituida por lipoproteínas.

DESCARGAR: MANUAL DEL CULTIVO DE TOMATE

2.- LA EPIDERMIS

Consiste básicamente de una capa simple de células epidermales que secretan la cutícula y líquido de muda.

Algunas de sus células están modificadas para producir los pelos o setas, para formar glándulas epidermales unicelulares, o las sencillas que tiene una función sensorial.

En la epidermis también se encuentran las células oenocito, cuya función posiblemente sea la de segregar la membrana basal.

3.- LA MEMBRANA BASAL

Es una delgada membrana no celular sobre la cual descansan las células de la epidermis y separa al exoesqueleto del resto del cuerpo del insecto.

Entradas relacionadas

Los comentarios están cerrados.

Comentarios (78)

A monetary advisor is your planning partner.

Good day! I could have sworn I’ve been to this site before but after browsing through some of the post I realized it’s new to me.
Anyhow, I’m definitely glad I found it and I’ll be bookmarking and checking back often!

Hello there! Do you know if they make any plugins to safeguard against hackers?
I’m kinda paranoid about losing everything I’ve worked hard
on. Any tips?

whoah this weblog is magnificent i really like reading your posts.
Stay up the good work! You already know, many persons are searching round for this information, you can help them greatly.

I’m gone to say to my little brother, that he should also pay a quick visit this web
site on regular basis to obtain updated from most recent news.

Can you tell us more about this? I’d like to find out more details.

Thanks , I’ve recently been looking for information approximately
this subject for a while and yours is the best I’ve found out till now.
But, what concerning the conclusion? Are you certain concerning the supply?

Hi everybody, here every one is sharing such experience, thus it’s
good to read this website, and I used to visit this web site every day.

You need to be a part of a contest for one of the
highest quality blogs on the web. I most certainly will
recommend this blog!

Howdy, i read your blog occasionally and i own a similar one
and i was just curious if you get a lot of spam comments?
If so how do you stop it, any plugin or anything
you can recommend? I get so much lately it’s driving me crazy so any help is very
much appreciated.

Link exchange is nothing else but it is simply placing the other person’s blog link
on your page at suitable place and other person will
also do similar in favor of you.

What a material of un-ambiguity and preserveness of valuable familiarity about unpredicted feelings.

For most recent information you have to visit the web and on web
I found this web site as a most excellent web page
for hottest updates.

My brother suggested I might like this web site.
He was totally right. This post actually made my day. You
can not imagine just how much time I had spent
for this info! Thanks!

Spot on with this write-up, I truly feel this web site needs
a lot more attention. I’ll probably be back
again to see more, thanks for the advice!

Link exchange is nothing else except it
is only placing the other person’s website link on your page at proper place and other person will also do same in favor of you.

I’m not sure exactly why but this site is loading extremely slow for me.
Is anyone else having this issue or is it a problem on my end?
I’ll check back later and see if the problem
still exists.

Great blog here! Also your site rather a lot up fast! What host are you the usage of?
Can I get your associate link in your host?
I wish my website loaded up as fast as yours lol

I always emailed this webpage post page to all my contacts, because if like to read it
afterward my friends will too.

Simply desire to say your article is as amazing. The clarity for your put up is just excellent and
that i can think you are an expert on this subject.
Fine along with your permission let me to grab
your feed to stay up to date with imminent post.

Thanks a million and please carry on the rewarding work.

Greate pieces. Keep writing such kind of information on your page.
Im really impressed by your blog.
Hello there, You have done a great job. I’ll definitely digg
it and personally suggest to my friends. I am confident they’ll be benefited from this web site.

What’s Taking place i’m new to this, I stumbled upon this I’ve discovered It
positively useful and it has helped me out loads.
I hope to contribute & help different customers like its aided me.
Good job.

whoah this weblog is magnificent i love reading
your articles. Stay up the great work! You already know,
a lot of people are searching round for this info, you can help them greatly.

Hurrah! In the end I got a webpage from where I know how to
actually get valuable information regarding my study and knowledge.

Hi this is kind of of off topic but I was wanting to know if blogs use WYSIWYG editors or if you have to manually code with HTML.
I’m starting a blog soon but have no coding expertise so I wanted to get guidance from someone with experience.
Any help would be enormously appreciated!

Hello my friend! I wish to say that this article
is awesome, nice written and come with approximately all significant infos.
I’d like to see extra posts like this .

Just desire to say your article is as astounding. The clarity in your post is just nice and i can assume you are an expert on this subject.
Well with your permission allow me to grab your RSS feed to keep up to date with forthcoming post.
Thanks a million and please carry on the rewarding work.

I just could not depart your website before suggesting that
I really enjoyed the standard information a person provide on your guests?

Is going to be again incessantly in order to check out new posts

Link exchange is nothing else except it is just placing the other person’s website link on your page at proper place and other person will also do same in support of you.

I do consider all of the ideas you have offered in your post.
They are very convincing and can certainly work. Still, the posts
are too quick for beginners. May you please lengthen them a
little from subsequent time? Thanks for the post.

It is not my first time to visit this website, i am
browsing this site dailly and take fastidious facts from here daily.

I think what you said was very logical. But, what about this?

what if you wrote a catchier title? I mean, I don’t want to tell you how to run your
blog, but suppose you added a post title that makes people want more?
I mean Entomología – I parte (manual gratis) | Libros y Manuales de Agronomia is
a little boring. You might look at Yahoo’s home page and watch how they create post
titles to grab people interested. You might add
a related video or a related pic or two to get readers interested
about what you’ve written. Just my opinion, it might bring your blog a little bit more interesting.

My partner and I stumbled over here from a different website and thought I might check things
out. I like what I see so now i am following you.
Look forward to exploring your web page again.

Woah! I’m really loving the template/theme of this website.

It’s simple, yet effective. A lot of times it’s very
difficult to get that “perfect balance” between superb usability and appearance.
I must say that you’ve done a very good job with this.
In addition, the blog loads very quick for me on Safari.
Excellent Blog!

Fantastic blog! Do you have any recommendations
for aspiring writers? I’m planning to start my own blog soon but
I’m a little lost on everything. Would you propose starting with a
free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many options
out there that I’m totally confused .. Any recommendations?

Thank you!

I pay a quick visit everyday a few web pages and blogs to read content, but this blog gives feature based content.

What’s up everybody, here every one is sharing these know-how, so it’s good to read this webpage,
and I used to pay a quick visit this webpage every day.

Attractive section of content. I just stumbled upon your weblog and in accession capital to assert that I get actually enjoyed account your blog posts.
Any way I’ll be subscribing to your augment and even I achievement you access consistently fast.

Hey there would you mind stating which blog platform you’re using?
I’m going to start my own blog in the near future but I’m having a tough time
choosing between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal.
The reason I ask is because your layout seems
different then most blogs and I’m looking for something
completely unique. P.S Apologies for getting off-topic but
I had to ask!

With havin so much written content do you ever run into any problems of plagorism or copyright violation?
My site has a lot of unique content I’ve either created
myself or outsourced but it looks like a lot of it is
popping it up all over the web without my authorization. Do you know any techniques to
help stop content from being ripped off? I’d definitely appreciate it.

Everything is very open with a precise explanation of the
challenges. It was truly informative. Your website
is extremely helpful. Thank you for sharing!

I love it when people come together and share views. Great site, stick with it!

You need to take part in a contest for one of the best sites on the web.
I most certainly will recommend this website!

I have to thank you for the efforts you have put in writing this website.
I really hope to view the same high-grade content by you later on as well.
In fact, your creative writing abilities has motivated me
to get my own website now 😉

Link exchange is nothing else except it is just placing the other person’s weblog link on your page at proper place and other person will also do same in support of you.

Hey there this is kinda of off topic but I was wanting to
know if blogs use WYSIWYG editors or if you have to manually code with HTML.
I’m starting a blog soon but have no coding knowledge so I wanted to get advice from someone with experience.
Any help would be greatly appreciated!

I used to be able to find good advice from
your articles.

Excellent post. I used to be checking constantly this weblog
and I am impressed! Extremely useful information specifically the final part :
) I handle such information much. I used to be looking for this particular info for a very lengthy
time. Thanks and best of luck.

My programmer is trying to persuade me to move to .net from PHP.
I have always disliked the idea because of the costs. But he’s tryiong none the
less. I’ve been using WordPress on various websites for
about a year and am nervous about switching to
another platform. I have heard very good things about blogengine.net.

Is there a way I can import all my wordpress content into
it? Any help would be really appreciated!

Today, I went to the beach front with my children.
I found a sea shell and gave it to my 4 year old daughter and said “You can hear the ocean if you put this to your ear.” She put the shell to her ear
and screamed. There was a hermit crab inside and it pinched her
ear. She never wants to go back! LoL I know this is completely
off topic but I had to tell someone!

If you want to increase your knowledge simply keep visiting this site and be updated with the hottest news posted here.

Yes! Finally someone writes about ig.

Unquestionably believe that which you said. Your favorite reason appeared to be
on the internet the easiest thing to be aware of. I say to you,
I certainly get annoyed while people consider worries that they
plainly do not know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top as well as defined out the whole thing without having side effect
, people could take a signal. Will likely be back to get more.
Thanks

Hello there! Do you use Twitter? I’d like to follow you if that would be okay.
I’m absolutely enjoying your blog and look forward to new posts.

Unquestionably believe that which you said. Your favorite justification appeared to be on the web the easiest thing to be
aware of. I say to you, I definitely get annoyed while
people consider worries that they plainly don’t know about.
You managed to hit the nail upon the top as well as defined out the whole thing
without having side-effects , people could take a signal.
Will probably be back to get more. Thanks

Hey would you mind sharing which blog platform
you’re using? I’m going to start my own blog in the near future but I’m having a difficult time selecting between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal.
The reason I ask is because your design seems different then most blogs and
I’m looking for something completely unique.
P.S My apologies for getting off-topic but I had
to ask!

Oh my goodness! Incredible article dude! Thanks, However I am experiencing problems with your RSS.
I don’t know the reason why I can’t join it.

Is there anyone else having similar RSS issues?
Anyone who knows the solution will you kindly respond?
Thanx!!

This is very attention-grabbing, You are an excessively professional blogger.
I have joined your feed and stay up for looking for more of your magnificent
post. Also, I have shared your website in my social networks

I visited many websites except the audio feature for audio songs existing at this website is truly superb.

Pretty nice post. I just stumbled upon your weblog and wished to say that I have truly enjoyed surfing
around your blog posts. After all I will be subscribing to your rss feed and I hope you write
again very soon!

Hi there just wanted to give you a quick heads up. The words in your content seem to be running off the screen in Safari.
I’m not sure if this is a formatting issue or something
to do with internet browser compatibility but I thought
I’d post to let you know. The layout look great though!

Hope you get the problem resolved soon. Cheers

Hurrah, that’s what I was searching for, what a data!

existing here at this website, thanks admin of this web page.

Write more, thats all I have to say. Literally, it
seems as though you relied on the video to make your
point. You clearly know what youre talking about,
why waste your intelligence on just posting videos to your weblog when you
could be giving us something enlightening to
read?

I am regular visitor, how are you everybody? This paragraph posted at this web page is genuinely good.

At this time it looks like BlogEngine is the preferred blogging
platform available right now. (from what I’ve read) Is that what
you are using on your blog?

This design is incredible! You most certainly know
how to keep a reader entertained. Between your wit and your videos, I was almost moved to start my own blog (well,
almost…HaHa!) Excellent job. I really enjoyed what you had to say, and more than that, how you
presented it. Too cool!

Quality content is the important to invite the users to pay a visit the website,
that’s what this web site is providing.

I feel this is one of the such a lot vital info for me.
And i am satisfied reading your article. However wanna statement on few general things, The
web site style is great, the articles is truly great : D. Excellent job, cheers

I am actually grateful to the owner of this site who has shared this wonderful piece of writing at here.

I’m impressed, I have to admit. Rarely do I
come across a blog that’s both educative and interesting,
and let me tell you, you’ve hit the nail on the head.

The problem is something that not enough folks are speaking intelligently about.
Now i’m very happy I found this during my search for something regarding this.

Excellent weblog here! Also your web site quite a bit up very fast!

What host are you using? Can I get your associate link in your host?
I want my web site loaded up as fast as yours lol

Definitely believe that which you stated. Your favorite justification seemed to be on the internet the simplest thing to be aware of.
I say to you, I definitely get irked while people think about worries that they plainly do not
know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top as well as defined out the whole thing without having side-effects ,
people could take a signal. Will probably be back to get
more. Thanks

I was curious if you ever considered changing the structure of your website?
Its very well written; I love what youve got to say.
But maybe you could a little more in the way of content
so people could connect with it better. Youve got an awful
lot of text for only having one or two pictures.
Maybe you could space it out better?

Howdy exceptional website! Does running a blog similar to this require a great
deal of work? I have no expertise in computer programming however I was hoping to start my own blog in the near future.
Anyway, if you have any ideas or tips for new blog owners
please share. I know this is off subject nevertheless I simply needed to ask.
Kudos!

It’s not my first time to go to see this web site, i am browsing this website dailly and obtain pleasant data from here
daily.

Link exchange is nothing else except it is simply placing the other person’s webpage link on your page at appropriate place and
other person will also do same in favor of you.

Hello friends, nice post and nice arguments commented
at this place, I am genuinely enjoying by these.

Hi! I know this is somewhat off topic but I was wondering if you knew where I
could locate a captcha plugin for my comment
form? I’m using the same blog platform as yours and I’m having difficulty finding one?
Thanks a lot!