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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Manual del cultivo de Pitahaya.pdf gratis

La pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus Britt el Rose) pertenece a la familia Cactáceae.

Es una planta perenne que crece de forma silvestre sobre árboles vivos, troncos secos, piedras y muros (Foto 1).

Su centro de origen parece ser el Suroeste de los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica y el Noroeste de México.

La pitahaya es una planta suculenta, con muchas espinas y se adapta bien a zonas de baja a mediana precipitación.

En Nicaragua se han identificado tres tipos de pitahaya, en función del número de aristas

:  Trigonus con tallos de tres aristas.

 Tetragonus con tallos de cuatro aristas.

 Pentagonus con tallos de cinco aristas.

El tipo más conocido y más cultivado comercialmente es el de tres aristas.

Valor Nutritivo y Usos de la pitahaya

Desde el punto de vista medicinal, la pitahaya se utiliza como laxante natural, tiene acción vermífuga, funciona como tónico cardíaco y nervioso, ayuda al buen funcionamiento del estómago y los intestinos.

La savia disuelta en agua caliente, alivia el cansancio de los pies. Con relación al uso industrial, se puede mencionar que del jugo concentrado de los tallos se puede extraer jabón; el colorante rojo de los frutos es empleado en la elaboración de helados, sorbetes, repostería; así como en la industria textil en el teñido de telas.

Un aspecto importante para la industria farmacéutica, es el alto contenido de antocianina que posee.

Recientes estudios han demostrado que esta sustancia es un antioxidante natural cotizándose en el mercado de Estados Unidos (Miami) en U.S. $1,000.00 el kilogramo de antocianina.

La planta es usada en muchos lugares como cerca viva, en corrales y huertas pequeñas.

La cáscara del fruto es usada como forraje para el ganado por su contenido proteico. La cáscara puede representar hasta 50% del peso total de la fruta y la pulpa tiene la composición nutritiva

MORFOLOGIA DE LA PLANTA

Raíz

La pitahaya tiene dos tipos de raíces:

(1) las raíces primarias, son las que penetran en el suelo y alimentan a la planta;

(2) las raíces secundarias o adventicias, nacen en la parte aérea de la planta y su función es de sostén; para ello se adhieren a la superficie de tutores que le sirven de soporte como árboles vivos o muertos, piedras, muros, tejados, etc.

Las raíces primarias forman un sistema de raicillas que se desarrollan a poca profundidad, entre 5 y 10 cm de la superficie del suelo, lo cual es una característica muy importante a la hora de efectuar las labores de fertilización, control de malezas, así como otras labores de cultivo.

Tallo

Los tallos son suculentos, de epidermis o superficie exterior gruesa, característica que permite que se desarrollen bien en zonas de baja precipitación.

El cierre de estomas, la presencia de mucílago y otras sustancias en los tallos regulan la pérdida excesiva de agua en la época seca, así como en las horas más calientes del día.

Resultado de imagen para manual de cultivo de pitahaya PDF

Los tallos, llamados vainas, tienen hábitos trepadores y se ramifican en varios segmentos que pueden llegar a crecer hasta dos metros de largo en algunos clones.

Los tallos presentan aristas las cuales son llamadas ‘costillas’, así como espinas, que dependiendo de la cantidad y forma de inserción de las mismas sirven para identificar los clones.

Flor

Las flores de la pitahaya son de forma de trompeta, de color blanco, amarillo o rosado.

Emergen en la parte de los tallos con mayor exposición a la luz solar. Las primeras flores aparecen con las primeras lluvias de Mayo, o en Junio si las mismas se retrasan (Foto 2).

La emisión floral de la pitahaya está relacionada con las condiciones climáticas de humedad, luz, temperatura y el estado nutricional de las plantas. Si estos factores están equilibrados se produce una floración abundante en todos los flujos de floración, asociado a una buena producción.

Fruto

El fruto es una baya de diferentes tamaños y formas: ovoide, redondeado y alargado. La cáscara posee brácteas de aspecto carnoso y ceroso.

La cantidad y tamaño de las brácteas varían de acuerdo al clon. La tonalidad de colores de los frutos, en el caso de Nicaragua, varía desde rojo a rojo intenso, morado claro y amarillo claro.

Resultado de imagen para manual de cultivo de pitahaya PDF

La longitud del fruto puede variar desde 8 a 12 cm y su peso desde 150 hasta 450 gramos (5 onzas hasta 1 libra).

Semillas

El fruto posee gran cantidad de pequeñas semillas de origen sexual y color negro con alto poder germinativo en condiciones óptimas de humedad y temperatura.

La multiplicación de pitahaya por medio de semilla es posible, pero el crecimiento y desarrollo de la vaina primaria de estas plantas es demasiado lento, alcanzando apenas 30 cm de longitud a los ocho meses de sembrada la semilla (López, 1996).

La producción se inicia hasta los seis o siete años, por lo que este sistema de propagación no se utiliza en Nicaragua.

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Comentarios (97)

Muy bueno el manual pero no sé en Colombia como conceguido la semilla de la pitahaya.deseo me oriente donde puedo conseguirla semilla

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