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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Guia del Cultivo de Tomate. Libros de Agronomia gratis pdf

En la mayoría de los países en desarrollo, como Nicaragua, los granos básicos han sido prioridad de investigación y producción.

La poca o mínima atención que otros cultivos han recibido, como las hortalizas, puede ser explicada basándose en que los esfuerzos han estado enfocados en garantizar la seguridad alimentaria para satisfacer las crecientes demandas alimenticias poblacionales, que año con año aumentan a ritmos extremadamente altos.

Sin embargo, es necesario que en estos países, y específicamente en Nicaragua, se dé al cultivo de hortalizas mayor importancia.

Muchas hortalizas, y en particular el tomate, tienen múltiples ventajas económicas y nutritivas.

Resultado de imagen para MIP DE TOMATE

Además, su producción se adapta bien a las condiciones agroclimáticas de los trópicos, particularmente, bajo riego y en zonas altas con marcados períodos secos.

El tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), cultivado tanto en huertos caseros como en áreas comerciales, es una de las hortalizas más populares del mundo; está catalogado como una buena fuente de vitaminas A y C, y puede ayudar a corregir las deficiencias de esas vitaminas en países como el nuestro.

El potencial del tomate en los trópicos es muy grande. Debido a su alto valor económico, constituye un gran atractivo para los pequeños agricultores; utiliza mano de obra intensiva creando empleos en las zonas rurales, como también, estimula el empleo urbano; puede incrementar exportaciones; mejorar la nutrición de la gente y aumentar el ingreso de los agricultores. Pocos productos agrícolas se prestan para tantos usos como el tomate: se sirve fresco, frito, como salsa o en combinación con otros alimentos, fácilmente se le da valor agregado; se usa como condimento en la cocina y en la industria de conservas y puede deshidratarse o procesarse entero, como pasta, salsa o jugo.

El cultivo de tomate se ve afectado por una serie de problemas fitosanitarios a lo largo de su ciclo, que pueden afectar significativamente los rendimientos si nos descuidamos y por ende causar pérdidas económicas a las familias productoras.

Entre los principales problemas podemos mencionar: insectos, enfermedades y malezas que afectan de diferentes formas e intensidades al cultivo, en sus diferentes etapas fenológicas.

Resultado de imagen para MIP DE TOMATE

Además, el hecho de que varias plagas del tomate son secundarias, provocadas por el uso excesivo de insecticidas, indica que es esencial minimizar el uso de productos de amplio espectro durante la etapa en la cual el cultivo es tolerante, esta acción ayuda a preservar los enemigos naturales de las plagas que se puedan presentar a lo largo del ciclo de producción del cultivo, lo cual reduciría los problemas que se podrían presentar durante su desarrollo.

QUE ES MANEJO INTEGRADO DE PLAGAS (MIP ) EN EL CULTIVO DE TOMATE

El manejo integrado de plagas debe ser un proceso de toma de decisiones sobre prácticas a emplear basado en conocimientos bioecológicos y observaciones sistemáticas del cultivo, plagas, control natural y ambiente, para mantener pérdidas por plagas en niveles aceptables con costos razonables y un impacto negativo mínimo sobre el medio ambiente y la salud humana.

¿CÓMO IMPLEMENTAR MIP CON PRODUCTORES(AS)?

Para fortalecer la capacidad de razonamiento y toma de decisiones de las familias y comunidades rurales, tenemos que trabajar en función de diversas habilidades y capacidades: observación, registro de información, análisis, evaluación de decisiones tomadas, identificación de objetivos, ajuste de objetivos, relación entre lo observado y los resultados, experimentación, curiosidad del porque de las cosas, motivación de buscar nuevas ideas.

Resultado de imagen para FENOLOGIA DE TOMATE

Estas habilidades y capacidades detrás del razonamiento ecológico y capacidad gerencial se pueden fortalecer a través de un proceso grupal y participativo de aprendizaje y experimentación por las etapas del cultivo.

En este proceso un grupo de agricultores y agricultoras y sus familiares se reúnen previo a la siembra para discutir sus experiencias con el cultivo y expectativas para el nuevo ciclo.

Identifican los problemas principales que esperan estudiar y posiblemente resolver durante el ciclo y planifican una serie de encuentros en las diferentes etapas del cultivo para hacer seguimiento a su trabajo.

Durante el ciclo toman datos en sus plantíos, discuten los datos, revisan sus decisiones y montan experimentos y ejercicios de descubrimiento y de aprendizaje.

Al final del ciclo se reúnen para analizar los frutos en términos del cultivo y de su fortalecimiento de habilidades.

También planifican el trabajo para el siguiente ciclo. Hablamos de un proceso, porque vamos retomando los elementos de observación, experimentación, aprendizaje y toma de decisiones en una serie de encuentros. Cada encuentro se basa sobre el encuentro anterior, y lo que ha pasado en el campo entre medio.

En cada encuentro primero discutimos lo que hemos hecho a partir del encuentro anterior.

Así cada encuentro se convierte en un paso hacia un aprendizaje mayor, hacia una mayor capacidad de razonamiento. La implementación de MIP implica aprendizaje, y el aprendizaje parte de lo que saben las y los agricultores y va construyendo y va fortaleciendo estos entendimientos en el tiempo.

A medida que uno aprende más, más se da cuenta de lo que falta por aprender. Cerramos el proceso siguiendo las etapas del cultivo y la toma de decisiones con un encuentro de evaluación y planteamos qué vamos a hacer en el próximo ciclo del cultivo.

Pues se convierte en un proceso cíclico.

El proceso de aprendizaje y experimentación es participativo desde la identificación de problemas y planificación del proceso, su seguimiento y evaluación.

Los métodos de trabajo utilizados para la enseñanza, la capacitación y el aprendizaje también son participativos.

Participación de las familias productoras significa que se trabaja en función de sus problemas, y que se involucran y cuidan de las parcelas de prueba por que son sus parcelas.

La retroalimentación constante de las y los agricultores y sus parcelas permite ajustar el proceso a los problemas e inquietudes que surgen sobre la marcha

DESCARGAR MANUAL COMPLETO DE MANEJO INTEGRADO DEL TOMATE. PDF GRATIS

fuente: http:inta.gob.ni/biblioteca

http://www.inta.gob.ni/biblioteca/images/pdf/guias/GUIA%20MIP%20tomate%202014.pdf

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