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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Manual de entutorado del tomate. pdf gratis

QUE ES ENTUTORADO DE TOMATE

Hoy en día se entutoran los cultivos, para aumentar la superficie de siembra; y también para mejorar la calidad de los frutos.

Entutorar tu cultivo permite una mejor distribución de las plantas, además mejora la exposición de las hojas (permitiendo la mayor obtención de luz solar), cosa que no sucede cuando se cultiva sobre el suelo sin usar algún tipo de entutorado.

Resultado de imagen para ENTUTORADO DE TOMATE

Cultivos como el tomate, chile o pimiento requieren de un buen sistema de entutorado, pues con el peso de los frutos, las ramas pueden trozarse o doblarse y permitir que los frutos toquen el suelo húmedo y se desarrollen enfermedades por hongos, bacterias o virus.

Por otro lado, los métodos de entutorado tradicionales (varas y rafia) requieren de mucha mano de obra, lo que conlleva a un alto grado de manipulación de las plantas por los trabajadores.

En promedio se usan de 66 a 70 kg de rafia para entutorar una hectárea de tomate en campo abierto (puede ser más o menos), eso dependerá de la cantidad de plantas por metro cuadrado y la altura a la que se dejen crecer las plantas.

En la década de los 60´s en Europa, se comenzaron a fabricar mallas de polipropileno, mejorando el método de entutorado.

Los sistemas de entutorado con malla espaldera, son resistentes y proporcionan un mejor soporte a los cultivos.

De esta forma se pueden prevenir la perdida de cultivos como las variaciones climáticas que hemos venido observando en estos últimos años, los fuertes vientos que trozan las ramas y las lluvias intensas que destrozan las hojas y las flores, perjudican de manera significativa los cultivos (en producción y calidad), mermando la economía de los productores.

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IMPORTANCIA DEL ENTUTORADO

El uso de la rafia en cultivos de hortalizas es algo muy común, sin embargo existen ciertas desventajas:

  •  Se necesita una gran cantidad de mano de obra para poder entutorar.
  •  Se requiere de una mayor manipulación de las plantas para poder amarrarlas.
  •  La rafia se reseca y comienza a desquebrajarse en un polvo muy fino que se queda en los frutos.
  •  Se corre el riesgo de que se troce una línea y se caiga todo el cultivo.
  •  Debido a que está formada por varias hilos, se vuelve un lugar perfecto para el crecimiento o formación de hongos y bacterias.

VENTAJAS DEL ENTUTORADO DE TOMATE

El uso de la malla espaldera es importante, pues las ventajas que presenta el uso de este tipo de entutorado son muchas:

  •  Ahorras tiempo y dinero ya que no es difícil colocarla.
  •  Es mínima la manipulación de las plantas por los trabajadores.
  •  Aumenta el área de exposición solar de las hojas.
  •  Permite aumentar la densidad de cultivo.
  •  Se incrementa la ventilación y se disminuyen las condiciones que benefician el crecimiento de patógenos como hongos y/o bacterias.
  •  Proporciona un mejor soporte previniendo el contagio de virosis o enfermedades por hongos y/o bacterias que se transmiten de forma mecánica.
  •  Vuelve práctica la aplicación de tratamientos de desinfección pues al estar extendidas las plantas penetra mejor la solución a aplicar.
  •  Vuelve más práctica y eficiente la poda y la cosecha de los frutos, por su cuadro de 25x25cm.

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