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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Manual de tractores y maquinaria agricola.pdf

Introducción
El sector agrario tiene un modelo sociológico y de organización de la producción
específico, que lo diferencia de los otros tres sectores económicos.

Como ejemplos de esta singularidad podemos señalar que:
– Una parte importante de los trabajadores agrícolas realizan sus trabajos
adscritos a un Régimen de la Seguridad Social diferenciado, denominado
Régimen Especial Agrario, y que muchos de ellos lo hacen
bajo la modalidad de “Cuenta Propia”.
– La participación en las labores del sector agrario de personas en activo
o jubiladas, procedentes de otros sectores económicos, que desarrollan
esta actividad de manera complementaria o sustitutoria de la
principal.

– La participación y colaboración de otros miembros de la unidad familiar,
además del agricultor titular, en las labores del campo.

– Unos diferentes hábitos culturales y preventivos existentes en el medio
rural respecto del ámbito urbano.

Estas y otras diferencias que pudiéramos señalar tienen tambien su reflejo
en el ámbito de la prevención de riesgos laborales.

Si tomamos como indicador la tasa de accidentalidad por sectores económicos, nos encontramos con que la tasa en el sector agrario es inferior a la de los otros tres sectores. En principio esto nos da tranquilidad y, unido al alto porcentaje de población trabajadora en régimen propia, relega a un segundo plano el abordaje de la problemática de riesgos laborales del sector. ¡Pero esta impresión es falsa!.

El sector agrario tiene una elevada tasa real de accidentalidad, especialmente en lo relativo a accidentes mortales. Dos son las causas principales de ese subregistro de accidentes:

a) La particularidad en las prestaciones por accidentes mortales y leves
de menos de 15 días de baja que se da en el Régimen Especial Agrario
respecto del Régimen General hace que haya una subdeclaración
de hecho de este tipo de accidentes en el sector agrario.

 

INDICE DEL MANUAL

1. Introducción………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
2. Consideraciones preliminares a la adquisición de nueva maquinaria
agrícola ………………………………………………………………………………………… 11
3. Puntos y zonas de peligro comunes a distintas máquinas agrícolas…. 17
3.1. Aspectos generales……………………………………………………………… 17
3.2. Puntos de engranaje ……………………………………………………………. 19
3.3. Puntos de atrapamiento o enganche ……………………………………. 20
3.4. Puntos de cizallamiento – zonas cortantes …………………………… 23
3.5. Zonas de aplastamiento……………………………………………………….. 26
3.6. Zonas de accionamiento. Desatascamientos………………………… 28
3.7. Volantes de inercia ………………………………………………………………. 30
3.8. Zonas de proyección……………………………………………………………. 32
3.9. Dispositivos de concentración de energía…………………………….. 34
3.9.1. Muelles……………………………………………………………………… 35
3.9.2. Sistemas hidráulicos……………………………………………………. 36
3.9.3. Aire comprimido …………………………………………………………. 36
3.9.4. Electricidad………………………………………………………………… 37
3.10. Resbalones y caídas…………………………………………………………….. 40
3.10.1. Subidas y bajadas a/de las máquinas ……………………………. 40
3.10.2. Superficies y suelos resbaladizos ………………………………….. 41
4. Tractores ………………………………………………………………………………………. 43
4.1. Verficaciones preliminares……………………………………………………. 45
4.2. Supervisión de depósitos……………………………………………………… 52
4.3. Revisión en la Inspección Técnica de Vehículos (ITV)……………. 54
4.4. Riesgos en la utilización del tractor y formas de prevenirlos…. 54
4.4.1. Reglas generales de seguridad …………………………………….. 54
4.4.2. Normas de circulación del tractor………………………………….. 58
4.4.3. Seguridad en terrenos inclinados y dificiles …………………….. 62
4.4.4. Riesgo de vuelco………………………………………………………… 63
4.4.4.1. Causas de vuelco………………………………………….. 63
4.4.4.2. Como evitar los vuelcos de los tractores …………… 68
4.4.5. Estructuras de protección: pórticos y cabinas de seguridad 77
5. Motocultores y motoazadas ………………………………………………………….. 81
6. Enganche y desenganche de máquinas arrastradas y suspendidas … 87
6.1. Normas generales de seguridad…………………………………………… 87
6.2. Enganche de máquinas suspendidas……………………………………. 90
6.2.1. Cultivador………………………………………………………………….. 90
6.2.2. Fresadora………………………………………………………………….. 93

7. Máquinas de preparación y trabajo del terreno ……………………………… 99
8. Máquinas de fertilización, de siembra y de plantación …………………… 107
8.1. Riesgos generales comunes a estas máquinas …………………….. 109
8.2. Medidas de prevención a adoptar comunes a estas máquinas…. 110
8.3. Remolques, distribuidores de estiércol y cisternas de purines … 111
8.4. Manejo de sacos de abono ………………………………………………….. 114
9. Máquinas para el tratamiento de los cultivos…………………………………. 115
9.1. Riesgos y medidas de prevención a adoptar ………………………… 120
9.1.1. Prevenciones con los equipos de aplicación……………………. 120
9.1.2. Precauciones con los productos fitosanitarios …………………. 121
9.2. Reglamentación sobre productos fitosanitarios ……………………. 128
10. Equipos de recolección…………………………………………………………………. 131
10.1. Guadañadoras……………………………………………………………………… 133
10.2. Moto-guadañadoras …………………………………………………………….. 137
10.3. Empacadoras ………………………………………………………………………. 139
10.4. Cosechadoras de forraje ……………………………………………………… 141
10.5. Remolques autocargadores …………………………………………………. 145
10.6. Cosechadoras de cereales y otras cosechadoras…………………. 147
11. Máquinas de transporte y de desplazamiento de productos…………… 151
11.1. Remolques…………………………………………………………………………… 151
11.2. Cargadores frontales……………………………………………………………. 155
12. Bibliografía consultada………………………………………………………………….. 161

 

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