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Manual de cultivo de HORTALIZAS para principiantes. pdf gratis

ELECCIÓN DEL SITIO A SEMBRAR EL HUERTO DE HORTALIZAS

Cultivar verduras en su jardín o huerto familiar es bueno para usted, su vecindario y para ayudar
a reducir sus huellas de monóxido de carbono, es decir, su impacto ambiental.

Las verduras se pueden cultivar en casa en una simple maceta en su patio, o en escala mayor dependiendo del espacio y tiempo que tenga disponible.

Elija el mejor sitio para su jardín, de preferencia un lugar que sea accesible desde su casa.

• El tamaño de su jardín dependerá  del espacio disponible, del tiempo que tenga para sembrar y de las necesidades alimentarias de su familia y vecindario.

Haga un mapa de la zona propuesta usando papel cuadriculado y dibujándolo a escala.
• Asegúrese de que el lugar reciba entre 6 a 8 horas de luz solar directa durante el día.
• Sol pleno durante todo el día es ideal para todas las verduras.

• Los cultivos de tubérculos o verduras de hoja (zanahoria, nabo, betabel, lechuga, espinaca, etc.) pueden tolerar algo de sombra.

• La falta de luz solar puede incrementar los problemas de enfermedades cuando se cultivan muchas plantas.

• Coloque las plantas más altas o en espalderas en la parte norte para que no bloqueen la luz solar a las plantas más bajas.

• Asegúrese de que haya una fuente de agua adecuada y accesible cerca de su huerto.
• Elija un área plana con suelo bien drenado.

• Puede acondicionar la tierra con compost o otra materia orgánica para mejorar su  calidad y obtener una mejor producción.

• Determine el espacio que debe dejar entre cada planta de acuerdo al tamaño de la planta madura – sus hojas deben apenas rozarse entre si

Te puede interesar  Plagas de los CÍTRICOS . PDF gratis

 

El cultivo de HORTALIZAS en contenedores

Hay siete consideraciones importantes en cuanto al cultivo de verduras en contenedores:

1. ¿Cuánta luz solar está disponible?
Elija las plantas de acuerdo con la cantidad de luz solar o sombra que obtendrán diariamente.

La mayoría de las verduras necesitan por lo menos de 6 a 8 horas de luz solar directa diariamente.

Las verduras de hoja, como la lechuga, cebolla, zanahoria y betabel o remolacha crecen bien en áreas parcialmente sombreadas; pero las plantas que producen fruto, como tomates, berenjena, calabaza y pimientos necesitan más de 8 horas al día de luz solar plena.

2. ¿Qué tipo de contenedor?
Casi cualquier contenedor puede servir siempre y cuando tenga buen drenaje.

Los contenedores pequeños y los de barro sin esmaltar se secan muy pronto en el verano.
El tamaño más chico que se puede usar en el exterior es de entre 8 a 12 pulgadas de diámetro y profundidad.

Bajo sombra parcial, los contenedores pequeños tal vez  puedan dar buen resultado.
Si va a usar contenedores reciclados, restriéguelos y enjuáguelos bien con una solución de 9 partes de agua por una de cloro.

Si los contenedores son porosos (barro, madera, cemento) remójelos bien en agua antes de llenarlos para que no actúen como esponjas absorbiendo toda el agua de la tierra.

Un contenedor hondo es siempre mejor que uno ancho porque provee más espacio para que las raíces crezcan hacia abajo en busca de humedad y temperaturas más frías.

Esto permitirá que las plantas prosperen durante los veranos calientes cuando se requiere de una irrigación más frecuente.

Los contenedores deben tener por lo menos 4 pulgadas más de profundidad que las raíces más largas.

Debido a que las plantas en contenedores se encuentran sobre el suelo, las raíces son más sensibles a las temperaturas extremas.

Te puede interesar  Manual de Huerta Ecológica. pdf gratis

El calor de pleno verano puede secar las raíces muy finas o pelos absorbentes.
Sin estas raíces que alimentan a la planta, ésta se marchita aun cuando la tierra se mantenga húmeda. Luego las raíces más grandes se hacen muy susceptibles a los hongos que pueden destruir el resto de la planta.

El calentamiento excesivo de la tierra es una causa común por la que las plantas en contenedores se secan. La madera gruesa aísla mejor, los contenedores de color oscuro absorben más calor y los contenedores de colores claros reflejan el calor.

3. ¿Qué debo plantar?
Los cultivos de raíces poco profundas como las hierbas de olor, lechuga, cebollitas verdes, rábanos y espinacas son fáciles de cultivar. Las zanahorias, papas, nabos y otros tubérculos necesitan contenedores más hondos.

Las verduras altas o que se extienden (como las berenjenas, pimientos, calabazas o tomates) tienen sistemas de raíces extensos.

Producirán bien si tienen suficiente espacio para que las raíces se desarrollen.

Para obtener el mayor provecho de su espacio limitado, seleccione variedades que produzcan bastante y variedades enanas con fruto de tamaño pequeño o mediano.

Entre estas están: los frijoles, remolachas, zanahorias, lechuga, pimientos, rábanos y algunas variedades de calabazas de verano y tomates.

Olvídese de las variedades clasificadas como “whopper” o enormes. Opte por las bajitas, en forma de arbusto, en lugar de plantas altas y trepadoras.

Para mayor producción, provea soporte a las plantas tipo enredadera o trepadora, colocando estacas o espalderas cuando recién plante las semillas o trasplantes para no dañar las raíces al clavarlas más adelante.

DESCARGAR Manual de cultivo de HORTALIZAS para principiantes. pdf gratis

fuente: http://ucanr.edu/blogs/food/blogfiles/12708.pdf

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