Admin/ octubre 18, 2018/ Consejos, Huertos/ 92 comentarios

En botánica, la reproducción vegetal designa a los variados mecanismos a través de los cuales las plantas se multiplican. Los musgos, los helechos y las plantas superiores muestran una increíble diversidad de historias de vida, hábito de crecimiento y fisiologías


1. Reproducción sexual Implica la unión de células y genera variabilidad genética.



Resultado de imagen para escarificacion de semillas

La escarificación es cualquier proceso que rompa, raye, altere mecánicamente o ablande las cubiertas de las semillas para hacerlas permeables al agua y a los gases


Imagen relacionada

Este tratamiento se utiliza para romper la latencia fisiológica, y consiste en colocar las semillas entre estratos que conservan la humedad, comúnmente arena o bien turba o vermiculita, en frío o calor.

La estratificación fría es aquella donde se mantienen las semillas a temperaturas bajas (- 5° C).


Resultado de imagen para estratificacion de semillas
Sumergir las semillas en agua tibia de un día para otro y después plantar.


2. Reproducción Vegetativa o asexual No implica la unión de células y
en ella los individuos se desarrollan para dar otros idénticos a ellos.
PARTES DE LAS PLANTAS: Tallo, hojas, raíces


  • División de mata
  • Acodos
  • Injertos
  • Esquejes o estacas
  • Bulbos, cormos, tubérculos y rizomas
  • Hijuelos
  • Estolones

Resultado de imagen para reproduccion de las plantas




Resultado de imagen para DIVISION DE MATAS

1. Sacar toda la mata de la tierra, y una vez tengamos toda la planta, proceder a su división.
2. Es importante cortar las hojas de cada división a una altura aproximada de una palma de mano.
3.Después de dividir las matas, realizar la plantación, en macetas o directamente en tierra.
4. Es importante que nos aseguremos de que las raíces se encuentran dentro de la superficie, aunque tratándose de un rizoma deberá permanecer en la superficie, ya que con exceso de humedad puede llegar a pudrirse.
5. Por último, cuando hayamos concluido la plantación, habrá que realizar un buen riego para que comiencen a enraizar de nuevo.


Resultado de imagen para reproduccion de las plantas ACODO
El acodo aéreo es una técnica de reproducción de árboles y arbustos mediante el cual se provoca la emisión de raíces en una rama, para cortarla posteriormente y separarla de la planta madre, dando lugar de esta manera a un nuevo árbol independiente idéntico a ella.

Para mejorar el éxito de dicha técnica es conveniente, aunque no imprescindible, cubrir con una cinta opaca el trozo de corteza de la rama que queremos acodar, para provocar su transformación en corteza sin cloroplastos, (orgánulos encargados de la fotosíntesis, en ellos se transforma la energía lumínica en energía química, que puede ser aprovechada por los vegetales), más parecida a la corteza de las raíces, lo que se llama ETIOLACIÓN. De esta manera aumentan las probabilidades de éxito, ya que la corteza etiolada emite raíces con facilidad, incluso en árboles de muy difícil enraizamiento




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