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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Manual de Sistema de Riego por Goteo. PDF Gratis

QUE ES UN SISTEMA DE RIEGO POR GOTEO

Es un método de riego localizado donde el agua es aplicada en forma de gotas a través de emisores, comúnmente denominados “goteros”.

La descarga de los emisores fluctúa en el rango de 2 a 4 litros por hora por gotero.

El riego por goteo suministra a intervalos frecuentes pequeñas cantidades de humedad a la raíz de cada planta por medio de delgados tubos de plástico.

Resultado de imagen para riego por goteo

Este método, utilizado con gran éxito en muchos países, garantiza una mínima pérdida de agua por evaporación o filtración, y es válido para casi todo tipo de cultivos.

Ventajas del sistema de  riego por goteo

De forma sintética, estas son las principales ventajas del riego por goteo:

  1. No perderemos agua por escorrentía (el agua que corre por la superficie). Al administrarse el aguagota a gota, esta nunca podrá acumularse en la superficie y correr sobre ella,  perdiendo así este agua y haciendo que a la planta no le dé tiempo a absorberla.
  2. Bajo consumo de energía en el sistema de bombeo del agua.
  3. Automatización completa del sistema. Gracias al programador  lo controlamos todo en todo momento. ¡Perfecto para irnos de vacaciones!
  4. Disposición exacta del agua en el lugar en el que necesita la planta. El sistema de riego por goteo distribuye en el agua directamente en la raíz de la planta para que absorba más rápido y se encargará de distribuirla.
  5. Administrar los nutrientes y fertilizantes necesarios para nuestra planta en el agua, mejorando así el  rendimiento de nuestro huerto. Proceso también conocido como fertirriego.
  6. Adiós a las malas hierbas. Al echar el agua directamente en la planta evitamos regar las malas hierbas, impidiéndoles así el crecimiento.
  7. Reducción de plagas. Al no mojar la planta en sí, sino solamente las raíces impedimos, por ejemplo, la aparición de hongos en las hojas. Tenemos que tener especial cuidado con la colocación  del gotero ya que si está muy pegado al tronco puede generar enfermedades vasculares.
  8. Este sistema de riego es apto para instalarse en cualquier tipo de terreno.
  9. Menor erosión del suelo ya que el agua no corre por este.
  10. Ahorra desde un 40% hasta un 60% de agua y puedes llevarla a zonas de difícil acceso ya sea laderas o quebradas.
  11. Aumenta la producción y calidad ya que el riego es directo y controlado, ahorras mano de obra y gastos por el consumo de agua.
  12. Aumento del rendimiento por el trabajo y los recursos empleados así como una mejora con respecto a la productividad por hectárea.
Te puede interesar  Manual de Cultivo sin suelo en Hortalizas
Resultado de imagen para riego por goteo

Desventajas

A pesar de las ventajas del riego por goteo presenta también algunos inconvenientes:

  1. El riego por goteo es más caro en la instalación que otros sistemas de riego. Pero realmente a la larga será mucho más económico y sobretodo ecológico.
  2. Posible taponamiento de los goteros debido a las sales que pueda contener el agua o por la mala calidad del gotero. Para ello recomendamos el uso de sistema de filtrados, algo que supone un aumento del presupuesto.
  3. No se puede labrar el suelo una vez está instalado el sistema.
  4. Alto coste de mantenimiento.
  5. Requiere de mayor preparación técnica por parte del agricultor.
  6. Necesidad de fertilizantes totalmente solubles en agua.

Sin embargo, el gran ahorro de agua que produce, permitiendo regar zonas áridas o semiáridas con escasez de agua o con agua de baja calidad, junto con la posibilidad de fertirrigar, aumentando la calidad y cantidad de las cosechas, hace que el riego localizado por goteo sea cada vez mas utilizado

COMPONENTES DE UN SISTEMA DE RIEGO POR GOTEO

FUENTE DE PRESIÓN

Puede ser una Bomba, o tal vez un estanque que se encuentre ubicado por lo menos 10 metros sobre el nivel del terreno a regar, o una red Comunitaria de agua presurizada.

LINEA DE PRESION

Constituido por una tubería de PVC, cuyo diámetro depende del tamaño de la parcela a la que se le aplicará este tipo de riego y que permite conducir las aguas desde los pozos existentes o desde la bomba hacia los cabezales, presurizando en su recorrido el agua al ganar presión hidrodinámica gracias a la topografía del lugar al tener pendiente a favor.

Te puede interesar  ▷CÓMO PLANTAR UVAS O PLANTA DE VID (Siembra, Tipos, Cuidados y cosecha) ✓Libros de Agronomia gratis pdf

CABEZAL DE RIEGO

Constituido por accesorios de control y filtrado. Los cabezales constan básicamente de:

  • – Válvula compuerta
  • – Válvula de aire
  • – Filtro de anillos
  • – Arco de riego con válvula de bola.

PORTA REGANTES

Tubería de PVC que permite conducir el agua hacia cada uno de los laterales donde se instalarán las cintas de goteo.

EMISORES

Constituidos por las Cintas de Goteo, que permiten emitir caudales de aproximadamente 1 a 2 litros por hora por cada gotero (ubicados cada 20 cm, o más). Las cintas trabajan con presiones nominales de hasta 10 metros de columna de agua.

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