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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Manual del cultivo de BEGONIA. Libros gratis pdf

El género begonia comprende alrededor de 1.500 especies, de las que alrededor de 150, además de casi 10.000 variedades e híbridos, se comercializan para su uso en jardinería. Son oriundas de las regiones tropicales y subtropicales de América, África y Asia

GéneroBegonia; L.

Blue Hawaii 5.0, Blue Danube

Tipo de floración: día largo facultativo; las plantas requieren una duración del día > 12 h, para facilitar la iniciación floral y la floración temprana.

Mecanismo de floración: la madurez y la duración del día afectan a la floración más que la irradiación o los niveles de luz.

Cultivo de plántula
Germinación: condiciones óptimas para el desarrollo de la plántula, empezando por el día de la siembra y hasta la aparición de la radícula. Aparición prevista de la radícula en 3-5 días.

Cubrición: no se requiere recubrimiento.

Método de siembra: 1-2 gránulos / semillas por plántula.

Sustrato: pH 5,5-5,8; CE (conductividad eléctrica) < 0,75.

Temperatura: 22-24 °C durante los 4-5 primeros días hasta la aparición de la radícula; luego, reduzca la temperatura
hasta 20-21 °C hasta que los cotiledones se hayan expandido por completo. Posteriormente, la temperatura puede reducirse hasta 18-20 °C

Suministro de agua: empiece con un nivel saturado (5) entre los días 1-3. El mayor nivel de humedad permite disolver el gránulo.

El día 4, empiece a reducir la humedad hasta un nivel mojado (4).

El día 6, continúe a secar gradualmente el sustrato hasta alcanzar un nivel húmedo (3).

Posteriormente, el nivel de humedad debe alternarse entre mojado (4) y medio (2). Deje que el sustrato adquiera un nivel medio antes de volver a saturarlo de agua hasta alcanzar un nivel mojado.

Humedad: establezca un 95-100 % de humedad hasta el día 4; luego, reduzca la humedad hasta el 40-60 %. Establezca una ventilación adecuada y un flujo de aire horizontal para mejorar los niveles de oxígeno en el sustrato.

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Luz: la luz es necesaria para la germinación. Si se utiliza una cámara, aporte 100-1.000 lx. La aportación de luz durante la germinación es beneficiosa y mejora la calidad.

Fertilizante: mantenga un CE < 1,0. El agua de fertilización no debería superar un CE de 0,5.

Estabilización de la plántula y e iniciación floral: condiciones óptimas durante la fase vegetativa, que se extiende
desde laexpansión del cotiledón hasta la iniciación floral.
Esta fase tiene lugar cuando las plántulas arraigan hasta el borde y llegan a la fase de 2-4 hojas verdaderas, en la que se produce la iniciación floral.

Sustrato: pH 5,5-5,8; CE < 1,0

Luz: ageratum es una planta de día largo facultativo, y si tiene una duración del día > 12 h, se acorta la duración de cultivo.

Aporte 8-12 moles (25.000-35.000 lx).

Temperatura: 17-20 °C el día 14-16. Con un TMD (temperatura media diaria) de 19,5 °C se logra la menor
duración de cultivo.

Suministro de agua: el nivel de humedad debe alternarse entre mojado (4) y medio (2). Deje que el sustrato empiece a adquirir un nivel medio (2) antes de volver a saturarlo de agua hasta alcanzar un nivel mojado (4). Si las plántulas tienen bordes marrones, habitualmente se debe a que están excesivamente secas.

Fertilizante: inicie el suministro de nutrientes con 50-60 ppm de nitrógeno, utilizando un fertilizante basado en calcio (13-2-13, 14-4-14 o mezclas similares). En condiciones de mayor intensidad de luz puede utilizarse un fertilizante con una cantidad de nitrógeno ligeramente superior (17-5-17). A medida que se desarrollen las
plántulas, aumente la tasa de fertilizante a 100 ppm.

Reguladores de crecimiento: ageratum es muy sensible a pulverizaciones de B-Nine (daminozida) a 2.500 ppm. En caso necesario, realice una aplicación única cuando las primeras hojas verdaderas se hayan bien desarrollado. Se puede realizar una segunda aplicación cuando las plántulas alcancen una erección total, o para limitar el tamaño de las mismas.

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Fungicidas: aplique fungicidas en caso necesario. Procure no aplicarlos si las plántulas están secas, para evitar quemaduras en el borde de las hojas.

Continuación del cultivo Sustrato: pH 5,5-5,8, CE 1,0-1,2; la necrosis en las hojas puede indicar toxicidad por sodio.
Luz: aporte 8-12 moles (25.000-35.000 lx). Los niveles de luz < 25.000 lx retrasan la floración

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