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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia


Desde un punto de vista ecológico, el control biológico es la acción de un organismo vivo (parasitoide, depredador o patógeno) para mantener la densidad de otro organismo a nivel más bajo del que ocurriría en su ausencia.

Desde un punto de vista práctico, se define como el uso de enemigos naturales para el control de plagas, o como el uso de organismos vivos como agentes para el control de plagas.

Es un componente básico del manejo integrado de plagas, cimentado en el efecto que los enemigos naturales tienen sobre los organismos
dañinos, regulando su población.

Existen diferentes tipos de control biológico:

Resultado de imagen para control biologico

Control biológico clásico o por introducción
Consiste básicamente en buscar en el lugar de origen de la plaga su enemigo natural clave, e introducirlo al área en donde la plaga está
ocasionando daño.

Control biológico por aumento
Consiste en reproducir masivamente un agente de control biológico y utilizarlo en grandes cantidades en liberaciones periódicas (inundación) o en unas cuantas ocasiones (inoculación), con la esperanza de que se establezca en el lugar en que se libera.

Control biológico por conservación
Como el nombre lo indica, consiste en aprovechar la presencia de los enemigos naturales presentes en un lugar para que regulen la población plaga, evitando realizar actividades que los perjudiquen (como la aplicación de plaguicidas).

Y, en lo posible, realizando acciones que los beneficien, como establecer plantas donde se refugian y encuentran alimento suplementario, como el néctar y las fl ores de girasol, cilantro, manzanilla, canola y otras especies aromáticas.


Importancia del control Biológico

Resultado de imagen para control biologico

La trascendencia del control biológico está íntimamente relacionada con las razones de que existen las plagas agrícolas, y son:
1.La introducción de organismos exóticos libres del enemigo natural que regula su población en el lugar de origen.

Te puede interesar  Manual de preparación de BIOL paso a paso. pdf gratis

2.La presencia alta y casi permanente de grandes áreas de cultivo que brindan recursos ilimitados a los organismos plaga.

3.La eliminación de los factores que regulan las poblaciones de especies fi tófagas (animales que se alimentan de plantas), donde se incluyen los enemigos naturales, generalmente por el empleo de plaguicidas.

4.El cambio de hábitos de las personas, como el dejar abandonadas las socas de las cosechas, donde se reproducen sin restricción las especies perjudiciales.

5.El cambio genético intrínseco de los organismos.

De las cinco razones expuestas, en dos de ellas, en la primera y en la tercera, el método de control que nos ocupa tiene una importancia

Como todos los métodos de control, el biológico tiene ventajas y desventajas. Entre las ventajas destacan: la casi nula contaminación del
medio ambiente, que no selecciona la resistencia de la plaga, que el control con frecuencia es a largo plazo, y que es altamente redituable
(la relación beneficio/costo es muy favorable).



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