Admin/ octubre 27, 2018/ Consejos/ 109 comentarios

Investigadores del Departamento de Parasitología Agrícola de la Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro (UAAAN) desarrollaron una ‘vacuna vegetal’ contra microorganismos patógenos e insectos plaga, al inducir la resistencia en plantas a partir de sus mecanismos de defensa.

“Este desarrollo surgió con la idea de aprovechar los mismos mecanismos de defensa que poseen las plantas, contra el ataque de microorganismos fitopatógenos que ocasionan enfermedades y contra insectos plaga”, comentó el doctor Alberto Flores Olivas, profesor e investigador del Departamento de Parasitología de la UAAAN.Esta innovación tiene como finalidad contribuir a la sustentabilidad en cultivos, al reducir la cantidad y número de aplicaciones de agroquímicos para fomentar un uso racional.

El proyecto fue desarrollado en tres etapas. Primero, los especialistas analizaron un modelo donde utilizaron plantas de tomates, extractos vegetales y un microorganismo fitopatógeno sumamente agresivo en tomate denominado Fusarium oxysporum, cepa lycopersici, que ocasiona la marchitez de las plantas de tomate.

“Primeramente, buscamos plantas que se ha reportado producen metabolitos que controlan microorganismos fitopatógenos. De todas estas plantas que evaluamos, seleccionamos una en particular (para desarrollar la ‘vacuna’) y estos metabolitos los evaluamos en forma pura y como extracto”, comentó el investigador.

En segunda instancia, fue evaluado el genoma completo de la planta de tomate, 29 mil genes aproximadamente, y se identificaron los genes que se expresaron al aplicar el microorganismo patógeno, extractos vegetales, en este caso alcamidas, y una combinación de ambos.

Finalmente, en una tercera etapa, los científicos observaron los genes que se expresaron, aquellos que se reprimieron, e identificaron los cambios fenotípicos que presentaron las plantas y qué metabolitos secundarios generaron como respuesta.

“Observando esto, hemos hecho algunas pruebas. Primero a nivel de invernadero, luego a nivel de campo, y ya seleccionando uno de los compuestos de estas alcamidas, en el cual hemos logrado resultados sumamente positivos como inductor de resistencia a enfermedades, lo que podemos llamar una ‘vacuna vegetal’. No es específica contra Fusarium (que fue el organismo contra el que se evaluó), sino que da u otorga resistencia a otro tipo de patógenos importantes como virus y bacterias; se tienen ya resultados de campo en varios cultivos con resultados muy halagadores”, aclaró el doctor Flores Olivas.

Hasta el momento, esta ‘vacuna vegetal’, se ha evaluado en tomate, papa; cucurbitáceas como melón y sandía; se ha probado en frutales como vid, manzano, nogal; algunas gramíneas como cebollas, lechugas, brócoli, entre otros. Comúnmente con una respuesta muy estable.

“En general este tipo de compuestos pueden aplicarse prácticamente en todo tipo de cultivos, no tiene restricciones, es una de las grandes ventajas. Además de ser compuesto orgánico, tiene menos restricciones en cultivos que son útiles para exportación, una vez teniendo el permiso de uso por parte de Cofepris”, señaló Flores Olivas.

Sobre su efectividad, el especialista especificó que con aplicación preventiva, para control de virus en cultivo de chile y cucurbitáceas, alcanzaron cifras superiores a 85 por ciento.

El científico de la UAAAN añadió que continuarán con la investigación enfocada en control de insectos plaga, ya que esta nueva ‘vacuna’ va dirigida principalmente a enfermedades vegetales derivadas de microorganismos fitopatógenos.

“Ahora la idea es incursionar en el control de insectos plaga. La línea que traemos ahí es la determinación de compuestos volátiles que emiten las plantas, que rechacen a insectos plaga, atraigan a depredadores o insectos parásitos de insectos plaga, y ver qué genes son los responsables para tratar de inducirlos en otro tipo de cultivos”.

El doctor Flores Olivas agregó que, después de más de una década de trabajo, están en acercamientos con el sector agroindustrial para lograr la transferencia de este desarrollo para el uso de los diferentes productores.

“Enfatizar que es un compuesto muy estable y que puede ser utilizado, puede ser transferido. El desarrollo que estoy comentando nos llevó unos 15 o 16 años en lograrlo, pero ya la ‘vacuna’ está lista para ser transferida para consumo de usuarios”.

CONTACTO
Dr. Alberto Flores Olivas
Departamento de Parasitología Agrícola, UAAAN
aflooli50@gmail.com
aflooli@uaaan.mx
(01 844) 411 0226 / 411 0326 / 411 0327 / 411 0334
Fuente: Felipe Sánchez Banda, Agencia Informativa CONACyT
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