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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

GUÍA DE IDENTIFICACIÓN, MIP DE ENFERMEDADES DEL FRIJOL.PDF

 

 

Indice
PUDRICIÓN DE RAÍCES, MAL DEL TALLUELO, PUDRICIÓN DEL TALLO – Rhizoctonia solani Kühn 4
AMARILLAMIENTO, AMARILLAMIENTO DE FUSARIUM , MARCHITEZ DE FUSARIUM – Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. phaseoli Kendrick & Snyder 6
TIZÓN SUREÑO, MARCHITEZ DE SCLEROTIUM, AÑUBLO SUREÑO, MALLA BLANCA, MAL DE ESCLEROCIO – Sclertotium rolfsii Sacc. 8
MUSTIA HILACHOSA, TELARAÑA, REQUEMA, CHASPARRIA – Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank) Donk (Rhizoctonia solani Kühn) 10
MANCHA ANGULAR – Phaeoisariopsis griseola (Sacc.) Ferraris 12
FALSA MANCHA ANGULAR – Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie 14
ANTRACNOSIS – Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magn.) Scrib. 16
ROYA, HERRUMBRE – Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.) Unger 18
TIZÓN COMÚN, BACTERIOSIS COMÚN, ANUBLO BACTERIANO, QUEMA – Xanthomonas axonopodis, (sin. Xanthomonas campestres pv. phaseoli) 20
MOSAICO DORADO AMARILLO, MOSAICO DORADO – Mosaico dorado amarillo (BGYMV) 22
AMACHAMIENTO – Complejo de virus 24
Epocas de aparición de enfermedades durante el ciclo del cultivo 26
Etapas de desarrollo de la planta de frijol para variedades de uso común en Centroamérica 28
Fungicidas de uso común pertenecientes a grupos genéricos citados 29
Principales características de las variedades de frijol liberadas en América Central entre 1980 y 2006 30
Referencias bibliográfi cas 37

 

1. Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (Hongo) – PUDRICION DE RAICES, MAL DEL TALLUELO, PUDRICIÓNION DEL TALLO

 

 

Importancia económica y síntomas
Esta enfermedad puede causar pérdidas de un 50% en los rendimientos Ataca raíces; las plantas afectadas son más pequeñas y están marchitas.
En la raíz se notan pequeños puntos rojizos alargados (Figura 1.1), que con el tiempo crecen y pueden llegar a formar cancros rojizos, hundidos, oscuros (Figura 1.2).
La raíz principal se deforma y se ven los tejidos internos (Figura 1.3).
En casos muy severos, cerca de las plantas muertas se forman pequeñas estructuras redondas, negras, parecidas a granos de arena.

Te puede interesar  GUÍA TÉCNICA PARA EL MANEJO DE VARIEDADES DE FRIJOL

Condiciones adecuadas para la enfermedad
Suelos húmedos y temperaturas medias (20-25 C) favorecen la enfermedad.
La planta puede ser atacada durante las primeras cuatro semanas.
El hongo sobrevive en restos de cosechas anteriores, por lo que el daño aumenta cuando se cultiva frijol en el mismo sitio por varios años.

Manejo integrado
Usar semilla sana y nueva (preferiblemente certificada).
Sembrar en lomillo alto, evitar suelos encharcados.
No sembrar a profundidad mayor de 3 cm en suelos contaminados.
Rotar con yuca, maíz, pastos.
Trabajar con labranza mínima y usar coberturas (malezas quemadas, restos de caña de maíz, etc.).
En suelos muy contaminados arar a 20 cm de profundidad.

No hay variedades tolerantes a la enfermedad.
Tratar la semilla con fungicida (benomil, carboxin, PCNB, Rizolex)

 

 

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FUENTE; repiica.iica.int/docs/B0891E/B0891E.pdf

 

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