Admin/ julio 11, 2018/ Noticias/ 63 comentarios

La alianza público-privada entre una minera y promotores agrícolas ha permitido desarrollar la ‘poderosa’, una variedad de papa altamente resistente a la rancha. Cuida el medioambiente, la salud y mejora la economía de los productores. Ya la conocen los productores de La Libertad.

Tiene nombre de superheroína de cómic y lo es. La ‘poderosa’ es un tubérculo que oculta sus poderes bajo el nombre técnico de INIA 325, una variedad de papa muy beneficiosa. Los productores paperos de las provincias de Pataz y Sánchez Cerro, en la región La Libertad, lo están comprobando.

Las semillas de la especie mejorada les sirven para aminorar el uso de plaguicidas, con lo cual: 1) cuidan mejor el medioambiente, 2) previenen enfermedades en la salud de los comensales, y 3) mejoran su economía.

Porque con la poderosa el agricultor reduce al mínimo el uso de funguicidas o productos químicos. Solo necesita dos funguicidas de contacto hasta antes de los 35 días, mientras que para otras especies se necesita aplicar más de 15 veces.

Potencial

En diciembre de 2014 se empezó a trabajar en estas dos provincias liberteñas proyectos productivos con grupos formados por 10 campesinos. Ya se han beneficiado más de 2,500 personas, entre productores, sus familias, compradores de semilla y consumidores finales.

“Si la comparamos con otras semillas, como la amarilis, la INIA 325 es muy resistente a la rancha”, comenta Jorge Luis Aguilar. La rancha o Phytophthora infestans es la principal enfermedad que azota a los cultivos de papa del norte del país.

Aguilar pertenece a una asociación de productores paperos de un caserío de Sánchez Cerro, que está sembrando en parcelas demostrativas la poderosa.

Entre Pataz y Chugay ya se han instalado 12.77 hectáreas de campos semilleros. Y este año, las autoridades de ambas provincias continuarán propagando las semillas de la nueva variedad.

Detalles paperos

La poderosa es posible gracias a una alianza público-privada en la que participan la Asociación Pataz, la compañía minera Poderosa, el Centro Internacional de la Papa (CIP) y el Instituto Nacional de Innovación Agraria (INIA).

“Con la variedad de papa poderosa, el productor de bajos recursos económicos evitará el uso de pesticidas que, por un lado, van en contra de la propia salud del campesino al perjudicar el medioambiente. Reducirá sus costos de producción y aumentará sus ingresos económicos”, explica Ronald Otiniano, coordinador de proyectos de la papa de la Asociación Pataz.

En el 2010, los técnicos del CIP –el principal centro de investigación agrícola del país– empezaron a trabajar clones de papa en la sierra del departamento de La Libertad para crear una nueva variedad que sea resistente a la rancha, con buenos rendimientos y calidad. Así nació CIP 399049.22 o ‘poderosa’. Cinco años después “liberaron” la variedad.

En promedio, el desarrollo de una variedad del tubérculo se demora alrededor de 12 años. Los primeros ocho años se realizan los “cruzamientos” y las evaluaciones preliminares de la resistencia a la rancha en Oxapampa, en la Selva Central, bajo condiciones muy favorables para la enfermedad.

Ya con los “clones avanzados” de alta resistencia se empieza el trabajo en el campo con los agricultores. En el caso de las dos provincias serranas de La Libertad, se aplicó la metodología de la “selección parietal significativa”, que permite que la variedad sea aceptada por todos los actores de la cadena de valor de la papa y, al mismo tiempo, consumida por los productores en general.

Los especialistas del CIP dicen que la poderosa es muy favorable para su consumo en fresco “porque tiene un alto contenido de materia seca”. Además, la variedad proviene de cruces de variedades nativas de papa. “Se ha mantenido la calidad de esas papas pero con resistencia a la rancha”.
La nueva variedad tiene un alto rendimiento (de 35 a 40 toneladas por hectárea), apreciable contenido de micronutrientes, de fierro y zinc, elementos que ayudan a evitar la anemia infantil.

Relación que perdura

“Tenemos como información que del 100% del agua aprovechable en nuestro país, un 86% se destina a la agricultura, el 7% a la población, el 6% a la industria y el 1.5% a la actividad minera. Y a esto le sumamos que cada vez la minería responsable, que invierte en tecnología, recircula el 100% del agua en sus operaciones”, dijo el ministro de Energía y Minas, Francisco Ísmodes, cuando clausuró el mes pasado la primera convención internacional sobre Agro Minería (Agromin), en Trujillo.

En ese sentido, el titular del Minem destacó la importancia del canon minero en beneficio de las poblaciones adyacentes a las zonas extractivas. De esta manera se pueden multiplicar proyectos como el de la poderosa.

La INIA 325 se encuentra en el mercado desde diciembre. Las asociaciones de semilleristas de la Asociación de Productores Agrarios del Anexo de Pamparacra del distrito de Piás de la provincia de Pataz y la Asociación de Productores Nueva Jerusalén, del distrito de Chugay de la provincia de Sánchez Carrión ya venden semillas certificadas. El kilogramo de semillas se vende entre 3 y 4 soles. Y la demanda va en aumento. (José Vadillo Vila)

 

FUENTE:https://elperuano.pe/noticia-bien-%E2%80%98poderosa%E2%80%99-68096.aspx

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