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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Manual de Injertacion del Palto. pdf gratis

La injertación es un tipo de reproducción vegetativa que consiste en unir dos o más partes de diferentes plantas; tales como yemas, brotes, troncos y raíces, con el propósito de que formen una nueva planta.

Por lo que esta técnica se presenta como una forma adecuada para contribuir en la recuperación de paltos afectados por heladas y sequías en la Región de Valparaíso.

El trabajo de injertación del palto se inicia con la selección, preparación, recolección y almacenamiento del material vegetativo, púas o yemas, que se espera injertar.

La labor se completa al efectuar la injertación en plantas jóvenes desarrolladas a partir de semilla en invernadero o en plantas adultas que crecen en los huertos.

Para efectuar esta técnica de u na forma adecuada, rápida y segura, se requiere utilizar herramientas de buena calidad, que estén afiladas y que sean fáciles de manipular.

Del mismo modo se requiere emplear otros materiales, tales como cintas plásticas, sellantes, fungicidas, entre otros, que facilitan el prendimiento del injerto una vez instalado.

Pero lo más importante es desarrollar las habilidades necesarias para injertar, mediante la práctica continua de las técnicas que se incluyen en esta guía.

HERRAMIENTAS PARA LA INJERTACIÓN

Para realizar la labor de injertación en especies frutales como el palto, se recomienda contar con las herramientas y los materiales adecuados, de manera de disminuir los riesgos de accidentes y realizar un trabajo de buena calidad.

A continuación se detallan los materiales y herramientas requeridos, incluyendo las recomendaciones para su uso y cuidados adecuados.

La tijera de punta fina

sirve para recolectar las púas, su mecanismo de corte se conoce como cizalla o “Bypass”, en el cual una lámina de metal afilada se desliza sobre otra lámina provocando el corte.

Resultado de imagen para TIJERA DE PUNTA PARA INJERTO

Es importante la mantención de las tijeras. Para lograr esto es requisito guardarlas limpias. Se deben lavar con agua añadiendo un detergente suave (procurando remover los restos de savia que quedan adheridos), utilizando una esponja o un cepillo, teniendo el cuidado de enjuagar con suficiente agua y secando bien antes de guardarlas para evitar oxidaciones.

Para una mayor protección, se puede aplicar en las hojas aceite anticorrosivo de baja viscosidad, aumentando su vida útil.

Es recomendable desinfectar las tijeras, cada vez que se usan, para evitar la propagación de enfermedades entre un árbol y otro.

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Al término de la faena se debe sumergir por 2 a 3 minutos en hipoclorito de sodio al 5%. Cabe destacar que períodos más prolongados pueden provocar un deterioro de éstas por el alto poder de oxidación del cloro.

Otro desinfectante es el yodo agrícola, su modo de acción activa los mecanismos de defensa de la planta, produciendo fitoalexinas que contrarrestan el ataque de los patógenos. Se rec

omienda usarlo antes de comenzar con la faena y aplicarlo de forma regular mientras se trabaja.

El material recolectado se debe mantener a una temperatura baja y en buenas condiciones de humedad de manera de evitar la deshidratación, es por esto que durante la recolección se debe contar con un contenedor térmico o cooler, y posteriormente deben ser mantenidos en un refrigerador convencional a una temperatura promedio de 5 – 7ºC.

Las púas deben ser envueltas en papel absorbente húmedo y limpio.

NAVAJA DE INJERTAR

Existen múltiples marcas y modelos de navajas injertadoras. la más fácilmente identificable es la que posee una pequeña muesca en forma de semicírculo en la parte delantera superior de la hoja y una espátula de punta obtusa en el otro extremo, la cual sirve para separar la corteza del portainjerto una vez hecho el corte y así facilitar la introducción en ella del material a injertar.

Resultado de imagen para NAVAJA DE INJERTAR



Al adquirir una navaja injertadora se debe considerar que existen normas de calidad en la fabricación de cuchillos.

Resultado de imagen para NAVAJA DE INJERTAR

Se recomiendan cuchillos de acero inoxidable que tengan incorporados en su fabricación los tratamientos de HTemple” y “Revenido”.

Este proceso consiste en someter al metal a cambios de temperaturas controlados, de manera de uniformar la estructuración interna de la hoja, logrando una dureza óptima en el rango de 58 a 60 unidades Rockwell.

Otras herramientas de injertación:

El mercado mundial ofrece diferente tipos de herramientas, que reemplazan y mejoran las alternativas en uso, manteniendo el principio básico de contar con un implemento afilado, para hacer calzar el injerto en el porta injerto. La herramienta Grafting tool “Omega scissor” de China realiza cortes con calce perfecto entre la púa y el portainjerto de un diámetro similar.

La tijera Grafting Shears”‘ de Nueva Zelanda, facilita los cortes en bisel requeridos en la injertación de púas

Resultado de imagen para TIJERA DE INJERTAR



Resultado de imagen para TIJERA DE INJERTAR

Evaluaciones preliminares de INIA La Cruz, muestran que Grafting Shears™ tiene utilidad en brotes maduros no flexibles y que “Omega scissor” posibilita realizar cortes en púas lignificadas y poco lignificadas de diámetro no mayor a 8 mm, aun cuando presenta problemas de sujeción sólo con cinta.

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Resultado de imagen para CORTES TIJERA DE INJERTAR

Se utiliza una amarra o cinta para conseguir una buena sujeción del injerto.

A través de la historia se han utilizado distintos materiales.

En la actualidad la tecnología nos permite disponer de materiales con alta calidad.

Debe ser flexible, para que se ajuste mejor al material que se está injertando, evitando la oxidación y la pérdida de humedad en el sitio de unión.

La cinta tipo film cumple con ese requisito, sujetando al injerto con la presión adecuada para evitar el estrangulamiento a medida que crece.

Se recomienda usar 3 capas de film alrededor del brote injertado.

Resultado de imagen para cinta de amarre para injertar

El filo de la navaja debe ser recto y prolijo desde principio a fin, porque determina la calidad del corte.

La mantención del filo de la navaja, requiere del uso de una piedra de asentar de grano fino, la cual se sumerge en agua por 5 minutos antes de usar y se enjuaga junto a la navaja constantemente.

La navaja se desliza con un movimiento suave en la dirección opuesta a la que apunta el filo de la hoja, con un ángulo de elevación de 12°-15º, lo que significa que una hoja de 10 mm de ancho se debe inclinar en 2-2,5 mm.

Luego de este procedimiento, se consigue un mejor acabado del afilado, con una lija fina al agua N° 230, siguiendo la misma indicación.

Para lograr que la cuchilla mantenga su trayectoria en línea sin producir cortes de tipo cóncavos, los cuales impiden una correcta unión entre las partes, se recomienda dar vuelta la hoja, apoyar el filo en la piedra y repetir el afilado en la cara opuesta de la hoja.

LA PASTA SELLANTE O CERA

Resultado de imagen para LA PASTA SELLANTE O CERA PARA INJERTO

se utiliza para evitar la entrada de agua y de organismos patógenos entre el injerto y el portainjerto.

Se utiliza principalmente en injertaciones en campo cuando los materiales a injertar son de distinto diámetro, después de un rebaje en una labor de reinjertación o de recuperación de huertos.

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La pasta comúnmente utilizada es una mezcla de 1 kg de pez castilla (destilado de una resina natural obtenida de coníferas) junto con 300 g de cera de abeja y 25 g de vaselina sólida.

Resultado de imagen para LA PASTA SELLANTE O CERA PARA INJERTO

La mezcla se prepara en un recipiente metálico, sometido a una fuente de calor, esperando que los componentes se derritan y se genere una mezcla uniforme.

Antes de aplicar sobre el injerto se deja enfriar hasta una temperatura aproximada de SOºC a SSºC, cuando la pasta adquiere una viscosidad característica que posibilita su aplicación en el injerto sin escurrimiento fuera del mismo.

Esta condición se alcanza después de enfriar por 20 minutos a temperatura ambiente.

Existen pastas sellantes elaboradas con resinas artificiales, cuya ventaja es que no requieren tratamiento térmico.

Debido a que no hay antecedentes sobre su uso en el desarrollo de los injertos, se recomienda el uso de pastas sellantes naturales

se recomienda el uso de pastas sellantes naturales

Consideraciones y recomendaciones

✓ El uso de tijeras y navajas de calidad ayuda a realizar cortes adecuados y con menor esfuerzo, disminuyendo los problemas de salud de los injertadores, por ejemplo, los que se asocian a tareas repetitivas, tales como tendinitis, o artritis en el largo plazo .

✓ Es importante proteger las manos, con guantes o dedales, ya que se trabaja con herramientas con filo, de manera tal de evitar cortes y accidentes .

✓ Es fundamental tener siempre a mano un botiquín con al menos los elementos básicos para entregar primeros auxilios frente a algún corte o lesión: antisépticos (jabón, agua oxigenada, alcohol y povidona) y material de protección (gasa, algodón, tijeras, guantes, amarra para torniquete, parches y cinta adhesiva).

✓ Para disminuir los riesgos asociados al utilizar herramientas con filo, que legalmente son consideradas armas blancas, es recomendable que se defina quién es el jefe a cargo de la operación y quién es el encargado de los materiales al iniciar la labor.

El primero debe supervisar si los trabajadores se encuentran aptos física y mentalmente para realizar la injertación sin peligro, designar las tareas y supervisar el trabajo técnico.

El segundo debe distribuir y luego colectar las herramientas que se usarán durante la jornada.

fuente: http://biblioteca.inia.cl/medios

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