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Manual de plagas y enfermedades del CULTIVO DE ZANAHORIA. libros gratis pdf

La zanahoria es una especie originaria del centro asiático y del mediterráneo. Ha sido cultivada y consumida desde antiguo por griegos y romanos. Durante los primeros años de su cultivo, las raíces de la zanahoria eran de color violáceo. El cambio de éstas a su actual color naranja se debe a las selecciones ocurridas a mediados de 1700 en Holanda, que aportó una gran cantidad de caroteno, el pigmento causante del color y que han sido base del material vegetal actual.

2. MORFOLOGÍA Y TAXOMOMÍA DE LA ZANAHORIA

Familia: Umbelliferae.
Nombre científico: Daucus carota L.
Planta: bianual. Durante el primer año se forma una roseta de pocas hojas y la raíz.

Después de un período de descanso, se presenta un tallo corto en el que se forman las flores durante la segunda estación de crecimiento.

Sistema radicular: raíz napiforme, de forma y color variables.

Tiene función almacenadora, y también presenta numerosas raíces secundarias que sirven como órganos de absorción.

Al realizar un corte transversal se distinguen dos zonas bien definidas: una exterior, constituida principalmente por el floema secundario y otra exterior formada por el xilema y la médula.

Las zanahorias más aceptadas son las que presentan gran proporción de corteza exterior, ya que el xilema es generalmente leñosos y sin sabor.

Flores: de color blanco, con largas brácteas en su base, agrupadas en inflorescencias en umbela compuesta.

Fruto: diaquenio soldado por su cara plana.

 

 IMPORTANCIA ECONÓMICA Y DISTRIBUCIÓN GEOGRÁFICA. 

El cultivo de la zanahoria ha experimentado un importante crecimiento en los últimos años, tanto en superficie, como en producción, ya que se trata de una de las hortalizas más producidas en el mundo. Asia es el mayor productor seguida por Europa y E.E.U.U.

Te puede interesar  MIP plagas y enfermedades de las cucurbitáceas. pdf gratis

 

TIPOS DE ZANAHORIAS:

  • Zanahorias grandes: destinadas fundamentalmente a la transformación, pero también al producto crudo preparado y al producto fresco.
  • Zanahorias finas: lavadas y en manojos, para uso industrial, empleándose para ello variedades de tamaño alargado, que permite hacer de cada pieza varios trozos que mantienen la forma original, seguidamente se procede al envasado directamente en bolsas pequeñas que son consumidas a modo de aperitivo. Este producto de cuarta gama funciona muy bien comercialmente.
  • Zanahorias en manojo: como producto de verano para su consumo en fresco. Se produce a lo largo del año. debe ser tierna y dulce, mientras que la zanahoria de lavado ha de ser más resistente.

 

VARIEDADES CULTIVADAS DE ZANAHORIA

  • ANTARES: se adapta a los cultivos de verano y otoño, especialmente en siembras de marzo a mayo. Su forma es cilíndrico-cónica, con resistencia a la rotura.
  • BAYON F1: variedad de tipo Amsterdam de hoja fuerte, precoz, su terminación al principio no es completamente redonda.
  • BOLERO: variedad tipo Nantes, zanahoria alargada que se corta en varios trozos semejantes y se toma como aperitivo. Recomendada para las siembras de abril a junio en zonas frías.
  • CARSON F1: variedad tipo Chantenay, caracterizada por su raíz cónica.
  • DIAVA F1: recomendada para todo el periodo de zonas frías (agosto-enero) y principalmente para octubre a noviembre en zonas más cálidas.
  • GÉMINI: resistente a la humedad, uniformidad, precocidad y poco destrío.
  • KAROL: variedad precoz adaptada a los suelos ligeros.
  • KAROTAN: variedad de tipo Flakee, buena coloración externa e interna, resistente al rajado y a la recolección mecanizada.
  • MAESTRO: resistente a Alternaria y cavity spot. Tiene una equilibrada proporción de hoja y raíz.
  • MAJOR: variedad tolerante al frío gracias a su rebrote tardío.
  • NANDRIN: variedad de ciclo medio, de raíz lisa y cilíndrica.
  • NELSON: híbrido precoz tipo Nantes, de follaje fuerte, aptas para las primeras entregas en manojo y las producciones en verano como cosecha principal.
  • NENE: híbrido medio-precoz. Presenta una hoja fuerte, raíz lisa y fina y se cultiva en tierras que no son demasiado arenosas.
  • NIPPON: híbrido tipo Nantes de hoja fuerte y raíz larga.
  • PLUTO: para el cultivo de fin de primavera y verano, se adapta a terrenos ligeros y tiene un ciclo de vegetación rápida.
  • PREMIA: siembra entre febrero y marzo, y su recolección de localiza durante los meses de julio y agosto.
  • RIGA F1: variedad tipo Nantes de ciclo medio, recomendada para siembras de otoño.
  • SPLENDID F1: variedad de doble aptitud, precoz y con terminación muy redonda.
  • TEMPO: variedad de ciclo precoz, muy adaptada a los suelos arenosos.
  • TINO F1: variedad del tipo Nantes, cilíndrica, recta, lisa y larga, zanahoria de lavado con buena aptitud para la conservación, destaca por su rusticidad y elevados rendimientos. Su siembra corresponde de agosto a diciembre en zonas templadas y de febrero a julio en zonas frías.
  • 1901 F1: hoja fuerte, oscura y erguida, ideal para manojo, precoz , raíz muy lisa y especialmente indicada en suelos muy sueltos y fértiles.
Te puede interesar  Manual de PLAGAS AGRÍCOLAS ® . pdf gratis

DESCARGAR GRATIS Manual de plagas y enfermedades del CULTIVO DE ZANAHORIA

fuente: https://inta.gob.ar/sites/default/files/script-tmp-inta_-_cap_1__el_cultivo_de_la_zanahoria.pdf

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