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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Biologia CELULAR. libro gratis pdf


Una pregunta fundamental en biolog4ía es ¿qué significa estar vivo?

Por ejemplo, las personas, un colibrí, un cactus y una lombriz de tierra están vivos, mientras que las piedras, las rocas y la arena, no.

¿Pero cuales son las propiedades fundamentales que caracterizan a todos los seres vivos y los distinguen de la materia inerte o no viva?

La respuesta inicia con un hecho básico, histórico en la biología, el establecimiento de la teoría celular.

Este hecho ocurre a mediados del siglo XIX y marca una revolución en el pensamiento humano ya que afirma que todos los seres vivos están constituidos por células.

Al igual que nosotros, cada célula que forma nuestro organismo, puede crecer, reproducirse, procesar información, responder a estímulos y llevar a cabo una asombrosa variedad de reacciones químicas.

Estas habilidades definen la vida. Nosotros y otros organismos pluricelulares contenemos miles de millones o billones de células organizadas en estructuras complejas, pero muchos organismos son solo una simple célula.

Aún estos organismos unicelulares exhiben todas las propiedades que distinguen lo viviente, lo que indica que la célula es la unidad fundamental de la vida, es decir, la vida comienza en las células.

Todos los organismos vivos están formados por células, de tal manera que ningún organismo puede ser considerado  un ser vivo, si no contiene al menos una célula.

La célula, como nos dice el investigador mexicano Ismael Ledezma, es la parte más pequeña que constituye a los seres vivientes, el común denominador, esto es, la unidad que caracteriza a los seres vivos, el principio o unidad fundamental para la organización y funcionamiento del cuerpo y en última instancia, de la vida.

Si las células son la unidad básica de la materia viviente, nada inferior a la célula puede ser considerado un ser vivo.


los virus, por ejemplo, son paquetes compactos de información genética (en forma de ADN o de ARN) revestido, en general por proteínas, pero carecen de la capacidad de reproducirse por sí mismos.

En cambio, se copian solo parasitando la maquinaria reproductiva de las células que invaden. Los virus son inertes e inactivos cuando están fuera de las células hospedadoras, pero ejercen un control nocivo una vez que ingresan.

Por lo tanto, a los virus no se les considera seres vivos, debido a que no pueden crecer o reproducirse por sí mismos.

Los virus son estudiados por la biología porque producen numerosas enfermedades en los seres vivos. Si no produjeran enfermedades, es muy probable que no se supiera de su existencia.

Algunas de estas enfermedades son: la varicela, gripe, sida, dengue, rabia, poliomielitis, hepatitis, resfrío común, etc.

La biología estudia las células con base a su constitución molecular y la forma en que juntas y organizadas constituyen organismos muy complejos como el ser humano.

Para comprender como funciona, se desarrolla y envejece el cuerpo humano y que falla en caso de enfermedad, es necesario conocer la estructura y el funcionamiento de las células que lo integran




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