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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Entomología. Virus Entomopatógenos.pdf

Los virus entomopatógenos son organismos que generalmente se han utilizado para el control de plagas muy dañinas, sobretodo orugas.

Suelen ser muy virulentos y no muestran amenazas a las plantas ni a los humanos. Se conocen alrededor de 450 especies de virus capaces de causar enfermedades a insectos y ácaros.

Existen los Virus de la Polihedrosis Nuclear (VPN) y Los Virus de la Polihedrosis Citoplasmática; el primero se multiplica dentro del núcleo de la célula y el segundo se multiplica en el núcleo.

Por ser los Virus de la Polihedrosis Nuclear los de trascendencia en el manejo de Plagas, se destacará su importancia en este documento.

Modo de Acción de VPN

Resultado de imagen para virus entomopatogenos

El insecto debe comer el virus, el cual invade el cuerpo del mismo a través del intestino, entonces se multiplica en los tejidos de la plaga ocasionando trastornos fisiológicos. El insecto deja de comer, no puede ovopositar y se reducen sus movimientos, provocando la muerte dentro de tres a ocho días.


Las larvas afectadas por VPN suelen volverse blanquecinos y granular u oscuros. Suelen colgar del ápice de las ramas de las plantas o las hojas. El esqueleto queda licuificado y es quebrado fácilmente exponiendo los poliedros a medio, los que afectan a otros insectos.


Es un virus de poliedrosis nuclear y granulosis, ataca insectos y otros artrópodos. Su código genético está contenido en ADN. Su material genético es fácilmente destruido con la exposición al sol u otras condiciones adversas.

El efecto es fatal para muchos insectos. La Infección puede ocurrir por ingesta o por vía de madre a hijos.

Estos virus son usados en numerosos cultivos y contra una importante cantidad de insectos como el Spodoptera littoralis en Algodón, tomate, maíz; Helicoverpa zea Heliothis virescens en algodón y vegetales; Spodoptera exigua en Vegetales e Invernaderos entre otros.

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Resultado de imagen para virus entomopatogenos

Virus Entomopatógenos
BACULOVIRIDAE BACULOVIRUS ADN Neuróptera, Trichoptera, Lepidóptera, Díptera, Hymenóptera, Coleóptera y Acaró. No vertebrados ni plantas
POXVIRIDAE ENTOMOPOXIVIRUS ADN Lepidóptera, Orthoptera, Coleóptera y Díptera. Vertebrados, no plantas.

Poseen apenas un tipo de ácido nucleico, DNA o RNA

• Su composición química simple (ácido nucleico y proteína y en el caso de los virus provistos de membrana, carbohidratos y lípidos)
• No contienen información que generen energía.
• Tienen dimensiones submicroscópicas
• Se replican por un proceso de montaje y no de crecimiento/división.
• Son parásitos celulares obligatorios


Características de los virus entomopatógenos

• Presentan una doble cadena de ADN circular-superembobinada

• Sobre el ácido nucléico existe una capa de proteína conocida como cápsido, que tiene forma tubular; el nucleocápsido es el conjunto formado por el ADN y el cápsido

• El virión constituye la parte infectiva del virus y está compuesto por una envoltura que puede contener uno o más nucleocápsidos

• Existe una matriz protéica paracristalina que cubre a uno o más viriones, estructura a la que se conoce como cuerpo de inclusión.



-Baculoviridae solo afecta artrópodos
 Insectos
 Crustáceos
 Ácaros

Afectan a insectos y vertebrados:


Autor:  – Hilda Gómez Ramirez  –





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