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Las fitohormonas, también llamadas hormonas vegetales, son sustancias producidas por células vegetales ubicados mayormente en las hojas de la planta y que actúan sobre otras células como mensajeros químicos

¿Cuáles son las principales hormonas de las plantas?

Funciones de las Auxina

significa en griego ‘crecer’ y es dado a un grupo de compuestos que estimulan la elongación.

El ácido indolacético (IAA) es la forma predominante, sin embargo, evidencia reciente sugiere que existen otras auxinas indólicas naturales en plantas.

Aunque la auxina se encuentra en toda la planta, la más altas concentraciones se localizan en las regiones meristemáticas en crecimiento activo. Se le encuentra tanto como molécula libre o en formas conjugadas inactivas.

Resultado de imagen para FUNCIONES AUXINAS

Cuando se encuentran conjugadas, la auxina se encuentra metabólicamente unida a otros compuestos de bajo peso molecular.

Este proceso parece ser reversible. La concentración de auxina libre en plantas varía de 1 a 100 mg/kg peso fresco.

Resultado de imagen para FUNCIONES AUXINAS

En contraste, la concentración de auxina conjugada ha sido demostrada en ocasiones que es sustancialmente más elevada.

Una característica sorprendente de la auxina es la fuerte polaridad exhibida en su transporte a través de la planta.

La auxina es transportada por medio de un mecanismo dependiente de energía, alejándose en formabasipétala desde el punto apical de la planta hacia su base.

Este flujo de auxina reprime el desarrollo de brotes axilares laterales a lo largo del tallo, manteniendo de esta forma la dominancia apical.

El movimiento de la auxina fuera de la lámina foliar hacia la base del pecíolo parece también prevenir la abscisión.

La auxina ha sido implicada en la regulación de un número de procesos fisiológicos.

Resultado de imagen para FUNCIONES AUXINAS
  • Promueve el crecimiento y diferenciación celular, y por lo tanto en el crecimiento en longitud de la planta,
  • Estimulan el crecimiento y maduración de frutas,
  • floración,
  • senectud,
  • geotropismo,
  • La auxina se dirige a la zona oscura de la planta, produciendo que las células de esa zona crezcan mas que las correspondientes células que se encuentran en la zona clara de la planta. Esto produce una curvatura de la punta de la planta hacia la luz, movimiento que se conoce como fototrofismo.
  • Retardan la caída de hojas, flores y frutos jóvenes
  • dominancia apical

El efecto inicial preciso de la hormona que subsecuentemente regula este arreglo diverso de eventos fisiológicos no es aún conocido.

Resultado de imagen para FUNCIONES AUXINAS

Durante la elongación celular inducida por la auxina se piensa que actúa por medio de un efecto rápido sobre el mecanismo de la bomba de protones ATPasa en la membrana plasmática, y un efecto secundario mediado por la síntesis de enzimas.

Funciones de las Giberelinas

El Acido giberélico GA3 fue la primera de esta clase de hormonas en ser descubierta. Las giberelinas son sintetizadas en los primordios apicales de las hojas, en puntas de las raíces y en semillas en desarrollo.

Resultado de imagen para FUNCIONES GIBERELINAS

La hormona no muestra el mismo transporte fuertemente polarizado como el observado para la auxina, aunque en algunas especies existe un movimiento basipétalo en el tallo.

Su principal función es incrementar la tasa de división celular (mitosis).
Además de ser encontradas en el floema, las giberelinas también han sido aisladas de exudados del xilema, lo que sugiere un movimiento más generalmente bidireccional de la molécula en la planta.

Funciones de las Citoquininas

Las citoquininas son hormonas vegetales naturales que estimulan la división celular en tejidos no meristemáticos.

Inicialmente fueron llamadas quininas, sin embargo, debido al uso anterior del nombre para un grupo de compuestos de la fisiología animal, se adaptó el término citoquinina (cito kinesis o división celular).

Resultado de imagen para CITOQUININAS

Son producidas en las zonas de crecimiento, como los meristemas en la punta de las raíces.

La zeatina es una hormona de esta clase y se encuentra en el maíz (Zea).

Las mayores concentraciones de citoquininas se encuentran en embriones y frutas jóvenes en desarrollo, ambos sufiendon una rápida división celular.

La presencia de altos niveles de citoquininas puede facilitar su habilidad de actuar como un fuente demandante de nutrientes.

Las citoquininas también se forman en las raíces y son translocadas a través del xilema hasta el brote.

Sin embargo, cuando los compuestos se encuentran en las hojas son relativamente inmóviles.

Resultado de imagen para CITOQUININAS

Otros efectos generales de las citoquininas en plantas incluyen:

  • estimulación de la germinación de semillas
  • estimulación de la formación de frutas sin semillas
  • ruptura del letargo de semillas
  • inducción de la formación de brotes
  • mejora de la floración
  • alteración en el crecimiento de frutos
  • ruptura de la dominancia apical.

Funciones del Ácido abscísico

El inhibe el crecimiento celular y la fotosíntesis.

El ácido acido abscisico (ABA), conocido anteriormente como dormina o agscisina, es un inhibidor del crecimiento natural presente en plantas.

Resultado de imagen para FUNCIONES ácido abscísico

Químicamente es un terpenoide que es estructuralmente muy similar a la porción terminal de los carotenoides.

El ácido abscísico es un potente inhibidor del crecimiento que ha sido propuesto para jugar un papel regulador en respuestas fisiológicas tan diversas como el letargo, abscisión de hojas y frutos y estrés hídrico, y por lo tanto tiene efectos contrarios a las de las hormonas de crecimiento (auxinas, giberelinas y citocininas).

Resultado de imagen para FUNCIONES ácido abscísico

Típicamente la concentración en las plantas es entre 0.01 y 1 ppm, sin embargo, en plantas marchitas la concentración puede incrementarse hasta 40 veces.

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El ácido abscísico se encuentra en todas las partes de la planta, sin embargo, las concentraciones más elevadas parecen estar localizadas en semillas y frutos jóvenes y la base del ovario.

Funciones de las Etileno

El etileno, siendo un hidrocarburo, es muy diferente a otras hormonas vegetales naturales.

Resultado de imagen para ETILENO

Aunque se ha sabido desde principios de siglo que el etileno provoca respuestas tales como geotropismo y abscisión, no fue sino hasta los años 1960s que se empezó a aceptar como una hormona vegetal. Se sabe que el efecto del etileno sobre las plantas y secciones de las plantas varía ampliamente.

Ha sido implicado en la maduración, abscisión,senectud, dormancia, floración y otras respuestas.

El etileno parece ser producido esencialmente por todas las partes vivas de las plantas superiores, y la tasa varía con el órgano y tejido específicos y su estado de crecimiento y desarrollo.

Resultado de imagen para ETILENO

Las tasas de síntesis varían desde rangos muy bajos (0.04-0.05 µl/kg-hr) en blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) a extremadamente elevadas (3,400 µl/kg-hr) en flores desvanecientes de orquídeasVanda.

Se ha encontrado que las alteraciones en la tasa sintética de etileno están asociadas cercanamente al desarrollo de ciertas respuestas fisiológicas en plantas y sus secciones, por ejemplo, la maduración de frutas climatéricas y la senectud de flores.

Ya que el etileno está siendo producido continuamente por las células vegetales, debe de existir algún mecanismo que prevenga la acumulación de la hormona dentro del tejido.

A diferencia de otras hormonas, el etileno gaseoso se difunde fácilmente fuera de la planta.

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Esta emanación pasiva del etileno fuera de la planta parece ser la principal forma de eliminar la hormona.

Técnicas como la ventilación y las condiciones hipobáricas ayudan a facilitar este fenómeno durante el periodo poscosecha al mantener un gradiente de difusión elevado entre el interior del producto y el medio que lo rodea.

Resultado de imagen para ETILENO

Un sistema de emanación pasivo de esta naturaleza implicaría que la concentración interna de etileno se controla principalmente por la tasa de síntesis en lugar de la tasa de remoción de la hormona.

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