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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

Manual de Entomología General. pdf gratis

El estudio de los insectos corresponde a la rama de las ciencias biológicas que recibe el nombre de
Entomología, cuya etimología griega es:
Entom = insecto y
Logos = tratado, estudio o acción.
La primera expresión es equivalente al término latino insectum, que significa cortado en, y define
perfectamente a los insectos, pues su cuerpo está dividido en diversos segmentos, generalmente bien
diferenciados.

Tomando como base la Entomología general o básica, existen entre otras entomologías aplicadas:
Entomología médica.- estudia el papel que desempeñan los insectos con relación a la salud humana
(trasmisión de enfermedades).
Entomología forestal.- estudia los insectos que afectan a los bosques y los productos que se obtienen de
estos (maderas: construcción, papel, etc.).
Entomología agrícola.- estudia los insectos que afectan los cultivos agrícolas en el campo y en el
almacén, así como a los productos que de ellos se obtienen.

INSECTO
Los insectos pertenecen al gran Phyllum de los animales con patas articuladas, llamadas artrópodos.
Dentro de este phyllum los insectos forman un grupo muy especializado y numeroso que comprende la
clase insecta o hexápoda, y constituyen más del 90% de este.
Los insectos se distribuyen desde el Ártico hasta el Antártico: desde las cumbres de las montañas más
elevadas hasta las profundas cavernas. Existen insectos terrestres y acuáticos.
CARACTERÍSTICAS
Se distinguen por tener el cuerpo dividido en tres regiones generales bien definidas que son: cabeza, tórax
y abdomen.
En la cabeza llevan un par de antenas y, en el tórax, por el lado inferior 3 pares de patas, siendo este un
carácter primordial del que se deriva el nombre HEXAPODA, palabra formada por dos raíces griegas:
HEXA = seis y PODOS = pies o patas. El dorso del tórax puede llevar uno o dos pares de alas, en
numerosas especies, pero también existe un buen número que carece de estos órganos.

CARACTERÍSTICAS FAVORABLES DE LOS INSECTOS FRENTE A OTROS ANIMALES

1. Exoesqueleto.
2. Tamaño.- Por ser generalmente pequeños, los hace difícilmente distinguibles de sus enemigos naturales
y los defiende de otras situaciones adversas.
3. Facultad de volar.- La mayoría poseen alas, lo cual les permite desplazarse rápidamente para ponerse a
salvo, proveerse de alimentos, buscar el sexo opuesto y perpetuar la especie.
4. Poder de Reproducción y lo Breve de su Ciclo biológico: permite una enorme multiplicación en muy
corto tiempo.
5. El Mimetismo: tomar forma o color de objetos cercanos los hace escapar de sus enemigos naturales.
6. Metamorfosis: les permite invernar en algún estado de su desarrollo para protegerse de condiciones
adversas del medio, así como de sus enemigos naturales.
7. Construcción de Capullos: estructuras de cera que les permite protegerse de condiciones adversas del
medio, así como de sus enemigos naturales.
8. El cambio de forma (metamorfosis), desde el punto de vista agrícola es importante pues el agricultor
solamente combate al estado en el cual el insecto causa daños (generalmente en el caso de larvas) y se
descuida del estado adulto quien es responsable de una nueva generación.

 

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