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Libros y Manuales de Agronomia

®Manual de Plagas del cultivo de MAÍZ. PDF GRATIS

RIPS ((Frankliniella williamsi))

Resultado de imagen para frankliniella williamsi en maiz

La biología de este insecto consiste de cinco estadios: adulto, huevo, larvas, prepupa y pupa.

Los huevos son depositados en el tejido tierno de la planta y la eclosión se presenta en 2 a 14 días dependiendo de la temperatura.

Las larvas de primer estadio empiezan a alimentarse pronto después de eclosionar.

El ciclo de vida completo desde la oviposición hasta la emergencia del adulto varía desde los 12-44 días.

Los trips causan su daño más severo en plántulas jóvenes y durante la formación de la mazorca permitiendo la entrada de patógenos como Fusariumspp.

Imagen relacionada
Estrategias de manejo:

Sembrar en labranza mínima.

Utilizar semilla tratada o realizar tratamiento a la semilla con un plaguicida autorizado para proteger 20  días a la planta.

Realizar muestreos periódicos para la detección temprana del insecto.

Se puede monitorear el arribo del insecto a la parcela con el uso de trampas pegajosas.

Dirigir las aplicaciones a la planta.

Momento oportuno de control:

Al revisar 100 plantas y encontrar 10 individuos por planta se recomienda hacer una medida de control

 

GUSANO COGOLLERO DEL MAIZ (Spodoptera frugiperda)

Resultado de imagen para GUSANO COGOLLERO en maiz

Los huevecillos están cubiertos con escamas.

Las larvas al eclosionar tienen hábitos gregarios, canibalísticos y se establecen en el cogollo de la planta. Se presentan seis instares larvarios.

Su ciclo es de 30 días en primavera y se alarga en invierno hasta 90 días.

Resultado de imagen para GUSANO COGOLLERO en maiz

Pupa en el suelo a una profundidad de 2 a 8 cm. La duración de la vida del adulto es de 10 días.

Resultado de imagen para GUSANO COGOLLERO en maiz

Estrategia de manejo:

Evitar siembras escalonadas.

Aplicar Bacillus thuringiensis con bajas poblaciones y en primeros instares. Aplicar plaguicidas a base de reguladores de crecimiento y biorracionales (caolin, aceite de Neem).

Durante la aplicación alinear las boquillas de la aspersora al hilo del surco.

Te puede interesar  Libros gratis: manejo-ecológico-de-plagas-y-enfermedades.pdf

Se recomienda consultar el Sistema de Alerta Fitosanitario (SIAFEG) para consultar fechas tentativas del ciclo biológico de la plaga para determinar los momentos oportunos de control.

Momento oportuno de control:

Al revisar 100 plantas y encontrar 20 plantas dañadas, con excremento fresco o presencia del insecto.

 

GUSANO SOLDADO (Spodoptera exigua)

Resultado de imagen para GUSANO SOLDADO en maiz

La etapa larval pasa por cinco instares de desarrollo.

La larva del cuarto instar come el 80 % del follaje total que consumirá en todo su ciclo.

La incidencia de estos insectos es muy irregular ya que aparecen de manera esporádica cada 2 – 3 años.

Resultado de imagen para SPODOPTERA EXIGUA en maiz

Los adultos son de hábitos nocturnos, su primera generación se presenta en mayo y la hembra pone hasta 2,000 huevecillos durante su vida.

Las larvas defolian principalmente maíz y sorgo.

Resultado de imagen para GUSANO SOLDADO en maiz

Estrategias de manejo:

Destruir las malezas de gramíneas principalmente de la orilla de las parcelas, al realizar un riego de auxilio ayuda a disminuir el daño de este insecto en la etapa de germinación de la planta.

Es parecido su control al recomendado para gusano cogollero.

Momento oportuno de control:

Al revisar 100 plantas y encontrar 20 con daño, presencia o excremento del insecto.

 

GUSANO DE TIERRA O TROZADOR (Agrotis sp.)

Resultado de imagen para GUSANO DE TIERRA en maiz

Los adultos emergen en primavera y ponen sus huevecillos en la superficie del suelo y tallo de la planta.

Las larvas permanecen ocultas durante el día y en la noche se alimentan.

Presentan hasta siete instares de fase larval y su ciclo lo desarrolla en 30 días.

Pupa en el suelo y dura de 12-15 días.

Resultado de imagen para GUSANO DE TIERRA en maiz
Estrategias de manejo:

Realizar un riego de auxilio ayuda disminuir el daño de este insecto.

Los plaguicidas autorizados deberán ser aplicados a la base de la planta con un volumen de agua superior a 300 l/ha.

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Resultado de imagen para GUSANO DE TIERRA en maiz

Momento oportuno de control:

Al revisar 100 plantas y encontrar 20 con daño, presencia o excremento del insecto.

En lugares con antecedentes del ataque del insecto se recomienda realizar tratamiento a la semilla.

 

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